Predator-prey relationship - Biology-Online Dictionary | Biology-Online Dictionary
Predators are animals that eat other animals. Prey are the animals that get eaten. The size of the predator population and prey population depend on each other. Predator - prey - negative feedback - stable population - vertebrates.v. invertebrates - density dependent factors (Serengeti) - density independent factors. Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator, kills and eats another Sometimes predator and prey find themselves in an evolutionary arms race, a cycle of 1 Definition; 2 Taxonomic range; 3 Foraging and some relationships that result in the prey's death are not generally called predation.
- Predator-Prey Cycles
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In this snowy environment, the polar bear is white to avoid being noticed as it approaches the seal, and the seal pup is white to avoid being noticed by the bear.
The fastest lions are able to catch food and eat, so they survive and reproduce, and gradually, faster lions make up more and more of the population. The fastest zebras are able to escape the lions, so they survive and reproduce, and gradually, faster zebras make up more and more of the population.
An important thing to realize is that as both organisms become faster to adapt to their environments, their relationship remains the same: This is true in all predator-prey relationships.
Another example of predator-prey evolution is that of the Galapagos tortoise. In addition, this article will consider the validity of including parasitism and herbivory within the broad definition of predation.
A great deal of debate is ongoing as to whether these two ecological interactions possess similar enough qualities with predation to be characterized as one phenomenon. Those sections of this article will cover this debate and provide the reader with resources with which to consider this question. General Overviews To acquire a broad overview of the field of predator-prey ecology, one should begin by examining several excellent reviews and general resources on the subject.
A great starting point for researchers interested in an introduction to predator-prey ecology is Barbosa and Castellanoswhich examines the subject from behavioral, population, and applied perspectives. For a more detailed approach, Lima and Dill provides a readable synthesis of behavioral trade-offs involved in predator-prey interactions, one that is broadened in ecological scope in Lima and, written later, Chase, et al.
Dawkins and Krebs provides an introduction to the evolution of the predator-prey arms race, while Abrams provides a critical approach to the arms race using a largely theoretical background for the predator-prey interaction, especially in terms of its evolutionary stability. The evolution of predator-prey interactions: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Abrams supports his arguments with a strong theoretical background beginning with early Lokta-Volterra models and advancing through gaps in current models.
The vertical stripes cause individual zebras in a herd to blend together when viewed for a distance. To a predator like a lion, the huge shape is not recognized as a potential source of food.
Camouflage can also be a strategy used by a predator to avoid detection by prey. An example is the polar bearwhose white color blends in with snow, reducing the likelihood that the bear will be detected as it approaches its prey. In this case, the same strategy and color can be utilized by young seals, since their color allows them to be invisible as they lie on the snowy surface. The community of individuals and the physical components of the environment in a certain area.
A sequence of organisms, each of which uses the next lower member of the sequence as a food source. An interconnected set of all the food chains in the same ecosystem.
The natural location of an organism or a population. Factors that influence the evolution of an organism. An example is the overuse of antibiotics, which provides a selection pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
The opposite of camouflage can occur. A prey can be vividly colored or have a pattern that is similar to another species that is poisonous or otherwise undesirable to the predator.
A successful predator must judge when pursuit of a prey is worth continuing and when to abandon the chase. This is because the pursuit requires energy. A predator that continually pursues prey without a successful kill will soon become exhausted and will be in danger of starvation. Predatory species such as lions are typically inactive during the hot daytime hours, when prey is often also resting, but become active and hunt at night when conditions are less energy taxing and prey is more available.
Similarly, bats emerge at night to engage in their sonar-assisted location of insects that have also emerged into the air. When supplied with food in a setting such as a zoo, predators will adopt a sedentary lifestyle. Predation is an energy-consuming activity that is typically done only when the creature is hungry or to supply food for offspring. In settings such as an aquarium, predators and prey will even co-exist.
Being a prey does not imply that the creature is completely helpless.
The prey may escape from the predator by strategies such as mimicry, or can simply outrun or hide from the predator. Some species act coordinately to repel a predator.Predator & Prey Song
For example, a flock of birds may collectively turn on a predator such as a larger bird or an animal such as a cat or dog to drive off the predator.
This mobbing type of repulsion can be highly orchestrated. As well, some bird species use different calls, which are thought to be a specific signal to other birds in the vicinity to join the attack. Even birds of a different species may respond to such a call. The fluctuation in the numbers of a predator species and its prey that occurs over time represents a phenomenon that is known as population dynamics.
The dynamics can be modeled mathematically. The results show that a sharp increase in the numbers of a prey species an example could be a rabbit is followed soon thereafter by a smaller increase in numbers of the relevant predator in this case the example could be the fox.
Predation - Wikipedia
As the prey population decreases due to predator killing, the food available for the predators is less, and so their numbers subsequently decline. With the predator pressure reduced, the numbers of the prey can increase once again and the cycle goes on. The result is a cyclical rising and falling of the numbers of the prey population, with a slightly later cyclical pattern of the predator.
A famous predator-prey model is the Lotka-Volterra version. The two equations were formulated in the mids by Italian mathematician Vito Volterra — to explain the decline in a fish population observed in the Adriatic Sea during World War I — At the same time, American mathematician Alfred Lotka — was using the equations to explain the behavior of some chemical reactions.
Their efforts were recognized as the Lotka-Volterra model, which represents one of the first examples of ecological modeling. Other examples include the Kermack-McKendrick model and the Jacob-Monod model used to model predation of one bacterial species on another.