Neuroscience for Kids - Spinal Cord
The spinal cord is the main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral A pair of spinal nerves leaves each segment of the spinal cord. The vertebral column (and the spinal cord within it) is divided into cervical, thoracic, The segmental spinal nerves leave the vertebral column through the arms is called the cervical enlargement and includes spinal segments C5—T1; the. Lumbar: 5 vertebral segments,5 nerve roots. Sacral: 5 fused segments,5 nerve roots. The spinal cord is connected to the brain stem and carries.
Two donors were female and four were male, with an average age of 43 years at death.
The cadavers were placed in the prone position. Following the removal of all muscles, ligaments, and vertebral laminae, the spinal cord was exposed by a longitudinal midline incision in the posterior dura and arachnoid membrane. Then, all the spinal nerve roots were identified from distal dural sleeve to proximal origin at the spinal cord in C1—S5 spinal cord segments. At each spinal cord segment, we measured the diameters of ventral and dorsal nerve roots by a caliper with a precision of 0.
Neurofilament NFa specific marker of neurofilament, was used to determine the number of nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical expression of NF in spinal nerve roots was examined as follows: Finally, all slices were mounted for light microscopic observation.
In addition, the histological structure of nerve roots was observed by HE staining in some cross sections. Then, systematic nerve fiber counts of stained cross sections were performed by the Image Pro Plus 6.
Spinal Nerves: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Coccyxgeal
Many cell bodies in the ventral horn of the spinal cord send axons through the ventral root to muscles to control movement. In the figures below, note the differences in the shape and size of the spinal cord at different levels. The dark gray color in each segment represents "gray matter. Nerve cell bodies are located in the gray matter. Surrounding the gray matter is white matter lighter color shading - this is where the axons of the spinal cord are located.Spinal Cord - External Anatomy - 3D Anatomy Tutorial
Spinal Cord Segments - Outlines Spinal Cord Segments - Photographs not to scale Compare the relative amount of gray and white matter at each level of the spinal cord. In the cervical segment, there is a relatively large amount of white matter.
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This pattern is caused by the many axons going up to the brain from all levels of the spinal cord AND there are many axons traveling from the brain down to different segments of the spinal cord. The posterior elements consist of the pedicles, lamina, facets articular processtransverse process and spinous process. The Disk Each vertebral body segment is attached to the level above and below by an intervertebral disk.
- Nerve Plexus
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The disk has several functions: The anterior longitudinal ligament connects the anterior portion of the vertebral bodies with one another. The posterior longitudinal ligament connects the posterior portion of the vertebral bodies. The ligamentum flavum connects the lamina of adjoining levels.
The interspinous ligaments connect the neighboring spinous processes. Additional ligaments are present at the C1-C2 articulation.