Mutualistic symbiotic relationship examples in the tropical rainforest

Symbiotic Relationships in the Tropical Rainforest by Sophia Meow on Prezi

mutualistic symbiotic relationship examples in the tropical rainforest

The relationship between the capuchin monkeys and flowering trees in the tropical rainforests is the best example of mutualism in this biome. There are innumerable instances of symbiotic interactions in rainforests, of which a few are The swollen tubers of some epiphytes (Rubiaceae, for example) provide these parasitic fungi are restrained by an antibiotic exuded from bacilli of the Plants and butterflies: Certain Passifloraceae plants have odd relationships. Mutualism: Both Organisms Benefit Agouti and Brazilian Nut Tree - Agouti gets food from eating the Brazilian Nut Tree's seed pods - Agouti spreads seeds.

For example, a Brazil nut tree relies on the orchid bees for pollination and attracts them with nectar. The tough seed pods can only be opened by a ground-dwelling rodent called an agouti that eats some of the nuts and buries others, some of which eventually become new Brazil nut trees.

These Symbiotic Relationships in the Rainforest are Truly Remarkable

Sciencing Video Vault Examples of Mutualism in Tropical Rainforest Ecosystems The complex web of interactions among the species of the rain forest often involves insects, plants and primitive organisms such as fungi.

Ants are especially likely to form various symbiotic relationships. For example, the leaf cutter ant has symbiotic relationships with fungi that they grow as food.

mutualistic symbiotic relationship examples in the tropical rainforest

The leaf cutter ants cut small pieces off leaves in the jungle and take them underground into their tunnels. They create small chambers where they store the leaf cuttings. Fungus grows on the leaves and the ants use bits of the fungus to feed their young. Through the symbiotic relationship, both the fungus and the young ants get fed.

Symbiotic Relationships in the Rain Forest | Sciencing

A chocolate tree has a much more complicated series of symbiotic relationships with a variety of other species, providing a complex example of mutualism in the tropical rainforest. To ensure pollination, the chocolate tree produces tiny buds that die and rot. These are ideal homes for the midges that it needs to pollinate its flowers.

Once the flowers are pollinated, they grow into large, brightly-colored seed pods. The seed pods are filled with a delicious, fleshy pulp and bitter seeds. With these pods, the chocolate tree attracts monkeys and squirrels that eat the pods but spit out the bitter seeds, in another symbiotic relationship.

  • Sciencing Video Vault
  • Rainforest Ecosystem
  • Types of Symbiotic Relationships

The chocolate tree relies on this relationship to scatter its seeds so more chocolate trees can grow. A more complex three-way arrangement is the infestation of chocolate trees with mealy bugs. The bugs don't harm the chocolate tree but the tree doesn't receive any direct benefit either. The mealy bugs are raised and taken care of by black ants that eat the waste honeydew the mealy bugs produce.

mutualistic symbiotic relationship examples in the tropical rainforest

These associations may be beneficial or negative to one or the other party, or neutral. There are innumerable instances of symbiotic interactions in rainforests, of which a few are mentioned here. The plants in turn provide starch and sugar secretions for the ants.

These Symbiotic Relationships in the Rainforest are Truly Remarkable

The swollen tubers of some epiphytes Rubiaceae, for example provide housing chambers for other ants, while the ants in turn provide excrement and humus for the nourishment of the plant. Ants and Macaranga trees: In Southeast Asian forests, Macaranga trees provide shelter for ants and entice them with starch grains, while the ants repel insect predators and cut off encroaching climbing plants.

The small caterpillars of the Lycaenid butterfly Arhopala are tolerated in small numbers because they produce a sugary solution when they are touched by the ants, and so they eat tree leaves in safety.

Azteca ants and Cecropia trees: Most trees of the genus Cecropia are associated with ants, which live in their hollow stems and feed on glycogen-rich compounds exuded from organs at the bases of the leaf petioles.

mutualistic symbiotic relationship examples in the tropical rainforest

The most common ants found are leaf-cutter ants of the genus Azteca, which protect the trees against encroaching vines and against the invasion of other leaf-cutter ants such as of the genus Atta. Cecropia trees which are home to ants are attacked less frequently than others, even if their leaves are more palatable than other species of Cecropia.

Mutualism- A Fig and Wasp Story

Leaf-cutter attine ants and fungi: One of the most complex associations of this type exists between attine ants and their fungi, associations which apparently have evolved over 50 million years Currie, Ant species specialize in particular groups of fungi.

Some species of Attini ants cut large numbers of leaves, carrying them long distances to chambers in their underground nests, which may extend over a considerable area and contain more than one thousand chambers. Other ant species utilize instead vegetation, flowers, insect remains, or discarded matter such as dead grass.

9) Symbiotic interactions

The fungi normally contain insecticides as a defense mechanism, but when in the garden, they degrade these toxic compounds, removing them from the fungal tissue eaten by the ants. Recently, it has been realized that the ant-fungal association is even more complex.

mutualistic symbiotic relationship examples in the tropical rainforest

But when the garden is stressed, or if the ants are removed, the Escovopsis fungi explode in numbers and overwhelm the fungal garden. Then the ant population will decline due to lack of food, at least until another garden can be established.