review. Articles including measurements of maternal sensitivity AND/OR maternal responsiveness allow examination of the nuances of mother-infant relations. outcomes and impacts the maternal child relationship through the lifespan. .. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews Zetterström. A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother–infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed.
Biological factors A negative relationship between maternal obesity postpartum and breastfeeding duration was first reported in 9. Since then, the focus has been on maternal obesity at the time of conception, which is negatively associated with both the likelihood of successful initiation of breastfeeding and its duration 1011though one study showed no association among black women A recent systematic review summarized the potential reasons for the association between maternal obesity and breastfeeding as anatomical, medical, sociocultural and psychological 11 Table 3.
Table 3 Potential reasons why obese women breastfeed for shorter durations1 Anatomical Practical difficulties with latch and positioning Medical Complications of diabetes or polycystic ovary syndrome causing delayed lactogenesis or low milk supply Socio-cultural Obese women are more likely to be of lower SES, which is itself a determinant of reduced breastfeeding duration Psychological Increased body image dissatisfaction and this increased concern about their bodies makes them less likely to breastfeed Open in a separate window 1Adapted from: Amir L, Donath S.
A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is strongly negatively associated with breastfeeding duration Mothers who smoke have significantly decreased milk production compared with non-smokers 14 ; this association may also be related to a decreased motivation to breastfeed among smokers Insufficient milk supply is consistently reported as a reason for early weaning 56. In response to the perception of having an insufficient milk supply, many women supplement breastfeeding with infant formula. This reduces demand for breast milk and decreases maternal supply, compounding the problem.
This biological factor has a strong psychological component as low maternal self-efficacy for breastfeeding is associated with perceptions of insufficient milk supply 6. Attitudinal characteristics High maternal self-efficacy is associated with prolonged breastfeeding 46. In addition, maternal attitudes toward breastfeeding have an impact on duration. Those who perceive breastfeeding to be healthier, easier and more convenient breastfeed longer than those who perceive that breastfeeding is restrictive, inconvenient and uncomfortable 4.
Breastfeeding and Health Outcomes for the Mother-Infant Dyad
It is not surprising that intended duration of breastfeeding is associated with actual duration of breastfeeding 46. Hospital practices Hospital practices shown to improve breastfeeding duration and exclusivity include early breastfeeding initiation, infant rooming-in and providing breast milk only 4 Clinicians may also directly influence maternal breastfeeding behavior. In a prospective cohort study, researchers 19 found that mothers whose pediatricians recommended formula supplementation were significantly more likely to discontinue exclusive breastfeeding by 12 weeks.
Social variables Maternal employment negatively affects breastfeeding behavior 5. Returning to full-time work outside the home is associated with reduced duration of breastfeeding 21whereas length of maternity leave is positively associated with duration of breastfeeding 4. Many women use breast pumps as a coping strategy for combing breastfeeding and employment Breast milk expression is discussed in more detail elsewhere [editor provide location].
The impact of professional and lay support on breastfeeding outcomes was assessed in a Cochrane meta-analysis All forms of lay and professional support increased the duration of any breastfeeding However, lay support and combinations of lay and professional support were more effective for continuation of exclusive breastfeeding than professional support alone Support from significant others also contributes to breastfeeding success 56.
From an initial search of The Web of Science database resulting in 5, possible articles, twelve studies met inclusion criteria. Findings from these studies were combined, and further analysis was carried out by re-exploring data extracts.
Transcript extracts provided in each paper were re-explored. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods of research were regarded as having equal value A thematic analysis was used to create a narrative synthesis.
Abstract Infants are social beings who need caregiving and companionship. Twelve studies met inclusion criteria.
This analysis indicated that the early post-natal period is often experienced as emotionally negative.
Breastfeeding and the mother – infant relationship — A review - Semantic Scholar
Frequently, mothers did not perceive their infant as having an internal world. Appropriate maternal understanding of the infant appeared to alleviate stress, and a sense of mutuality with their infant was experienced as positive.
Implications for interventions and future research include the importance of health visitors helping mothers better understand their infants. This would support the mother-infant relationship, and benefit maternal mental health by decreasing maternal stress. Mother-infant relationship, mind-mindedness, companionship, infant mental health. Introduction The infant is a sensitive, social being Trevarthen, The majority of infant mental health issues are associated with relationship disturbances Zeanah et al,therefore much research has investigated parental behaviours which benefit the parent-infant relationship.
Mind-mindedness appears to be a powerful factor in the parent-infant relationship. It also predicts child outcomes in areas of cognition, linguistics and play Meins It has been argued that the infant needs both a caregiver and a companion Trevarthen Companionship is an inherent necessity for the infant, benefiting cognitive and social development including language, culture, memories, ideas, and additionally tying people together through affection, mutual joy and discovery Reddy The review presented here explores how mothers subjectively experience their parent-infant relationship.
This review focused on studies of mother and infant. Study aim The question this systematic review intends to answer is: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods research were regarded as having equal value, as each provides different insights to reality and may, together, provide a fuller understanding than that provided by one methodological approach. The Web of Science database was searched, resulting in 5, possible articles to include.
Three were rejected due to not being in English. Twenty additional studies were included based on hand-searching literature. Studies were reviewed by title and abstract and excluded if they predominately focused on fathers, non-typical mothers, non-typical infants, breastfeeding or infants over 18 months.
One-hundred-and-forty-one remained and were reviewed in full to see if they met the review criteria, 14 studies remained after this stage. Two were subsequently excluded for not meeting the required quality, a judgement informed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme CASP checklists. Twelve studies were left that met the criteria and were included in the synthesis see Appendix 1: Table 1following Cochrane Guidance Ryan, thematic analysis was used.
This is an approach that examines and records patterns and themes within data. These patterns are then summarised in a narrative, a story about what the data tells us - termed a narrative synthesis. In an effort to consider different aspects of the data, transcript extracts from articles were re-explored.
Results Initial themes were identified from the studies see Diagram 1. Although some studies were rich in data regarding the parent-infant relationship, others were surprising limited.
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From the initial review, there was very little indication that mothers had a sense of companionship or mutuality in their relationship. Line by line coding of the transcript extracts determined new themes and shifts in the importance given to them. Diagram 1 shows the synthesised themes, and these are discussed below. For example, compare Zeanah et al. Categorised as forming a relationship: I think it's a good relationship.
Recently, I've thought that we're beginning to figure one another out. She still gets cranky at times when I breastfeed her, and I don't know what to make of that. In general, she responds well, though. Categorised as immersed in the relationship: It is very intimate — I feel a great deal of love for him. I feel, whatever you call it, the maternal instinct. I don't see myself going back to work fulltime as I had planned before.
I don't want to share him with anyone else; I want to be his mother. I even felt a bit rivalrous when my own mother was here visiting for two weeks. Anyway, it's a wonderful feeling.
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The former transcript extract provides a greater sense of infant as part of the relationship than the latter extract. The latter conveys a global sense of maternal affection towards the infant by the mother, but is less relationally rich. The authors of this study may have perceived parental affection as equating to a relationship, rather than a sense of both parent and infant as agentive, or of mutuality within the relationship.
Authors tended to present the parent as active and the infant as reactive, even when the mother appeared to suggest a much more active infant Bell et al. Mothers and midwives appeared to omit consideration of the mother-infant relationship in their discussions Olsson et al. The authors did not acknowledge this difference.
Emotional time Parents had a tendency to describe pleasure in the relationship by using global terms of loving the baby Zeanah et al. Perhaps reflecting the stress, anxiety and anger experienced by mothers, the need for moral and social support and social contact was identified by mothers Staneva and Wittkowski, ; Parfitt and Ayers, ; Blank et al, However, the partner relationship could experience considerable transition and tension in the early weeks of parenthood Bell et al, Porter and Ispa point to parents wanting their children, who were under the age of three years, to eat and drink for themselves, wean themselves, try different food, sleep through the night, settle themselves, nap alone, tolerate being alone, sit, crawl, talk clearly, use the toilet, behave and not require comfort objects.