Official proceedings of the annual meeting:
view The Casework Relationship Felix Paul Biestek No preview available The Casework Relationship by Felix P Biestek at AbeBooks co uk ISBN 10 . ford mustang owners manual downloa yamaha rx1. relationship-based management in child-care social work. Perlman, H.H. ( ) Social casework: A problem-solving process. Chicago: The. University of .. social work (see, for example, Biestek, ; GSSC, ) – are not about Ford, M. and Gardner, C. () Leadership Development: How government works. Chapter 11 examines more general issues in relation to risk assessment and management. in P. Stepney and D. Ford (eds) Social Work Models, Methods and Theories: A Framework for Biestek, F. () The Casework Relationship .
This accomplishment is remarkable when it is considered that only fifty years ago social insurance programs were condemned by many sociology textbooks as being "socialistic. In addition to OASI we have at least the beginnings of minimum coverage for the risk of unemployed. The unemployment insurance programs in most of our states need considerable liberalization and expansion, but we have made a start and we now have the framework on which to build.
Then, of course, we have the workman's compensation programs which in most states predate the Social Security Act by several decades. In our more pessimistic moments we fail to remember that it is only in the last quarter of a century that we have developed a vast system of public welfare services with complete geographical coverage, including five major public assistance programs and substantial provisions to meet the various needs of children.
More recently the Federal Government, and to a lesser degree local governments and agencies, has enacted programs to rehabilitate handicapped people and to do something about the increasing problem of delinquency. Only a short time ago the so-called "welfare state" was political suicide to any party or candidate that would dare espouse it.
Today at the national level we find the two major political parties almost competing in promises of maintenance and expansion of existing programs and even promises of new social services. This shift is a recognition of the fact that government has a responsibility and a willingness to make some effort to meet needs. It suggests that public welfare is gradually being removed from the political arena and is becoming a part of basic public policy.
The degree and the specific methods are still subject to political argument, but the acceptance of the substantive responsibility is now quite general. Within the half century our voluntary or private social agencies have built a network of general and specialized social services, some regular and some experimental, that have added greatly to the development of the profession and to the expansion of services to people.
We have made tremendous advances in public health, and the life span has been substantially lengthened. Infant mortality and maternal death rates have declined markedly. Even in research, where we have allowed a serious lag, there are evidences in the last decade of interest, of movement, and in some instances of accomplishment. In the area of nonfinancial services the voluntary agencies have expanded and deepened the concept of community service to people in need, one great dividend of which not often enough realized, is the voluntary citizen effort that leads to a more sensitive awareness of problems among the more advantaged public.
Unhappily, perhaps, the expansion of these services has been limited largely to urban areas. This is not the whole story. There has been progress in recreation, in working conditions, in housing, in race relations, and in numerous other areas of our common interests.
Does this mean that we are going to rest on our laurels and sit back with satisfied expressions? Does it mean that the programs which once met the needs still meet them under changed conditions?
Does it mean that we as a group interested in the welfare of people are going to be complacent about the many problems that are still unmet or met very inadequately?
It is, indeed, worth while to look at history and to study past mistakes and accomplishments. It is easy to get into an argument about events of the past. But as Winston Churchill said in England's fateful year of"If the present now engages in a quarrel with the past, then surely the future will be lost. A sample review of news items over the past year cannot fail to produce a challenge to our profession and to those who would join us in our effort to produce a better life for more people.
In November ofthe Senate Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency stated that "over 1, children came to the attention of the police in Almost half a million were brought to the attention of the juvenile courts. This was a lo per cent increase over and a 58 per cent increase over the figures. The neighbors are quoted as saying that they had heard their anguished cries. Without knowledge, much less assessment, of all the factors involved, it remains that this thing happened in the United States of America in when our food storage houses were bulging to the breaking point.
No more pioneering courses to chart? In the city of St. Louis within the year, the father of a six-yearold mentally retarded child, after vainly trying to get him into 2 Notes of the Senate Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency, November lo, In the state of Missouri we have five- to ten-year waiting lists for the institutional care of retarded children. Who says we should let "well enough alone"? In this year ofEmmett Louis Till, aged fourteen, who was a visitor from Chicago in the state of Mississippi, was kidnapped, beaten, shot, and thrown into the Tallahatchie River.
The newspaper accounts of the trials which followed are shocking to those who believe in justice, equality of rights, and due process of law. The American Civil Liberties Union reported in October,that the city of Providence, Rhode Island, refused to accept a statue of Thomas Paine because this hero of the American Revolution "was and remains a controversial figure. Even in one of the greatest industrial booms in the history of our country, there are 3.
Congress points out that there are pockets of unemployment and of underemployment and of "depressed economic areas, both urban and rural, which contain a significant proportion of the low-income population-and that as time passes they will contain relatively more of the low income group, unless positive 3 Jeffrey E.
Jones, president of the Association, is quoted as saying: In a seeming paradox, American families are experiencing greater prosperity and, at the same time, seeking the help of family service agencies in greater numbers than ever before. Duringwhen the nation found assurance in a record billion dollar national output, the Family Service Agencies affiliated with the FSAA counted approximately i,ooo,ooo persons in the families requesting and receiving counselling and assistance with personal problems.
From an awareness of the past and the present comes the challenge of the future. And the challenge of change must be more than an abstraction or a theoretical concept. At this juncture in history, I consider the following specific challenges vital to a mature and dynamic profession of social work in our changing society: The challenge of peace. The existing cold war between the East and the West, particularly in relation to the use of atomic energy, is the most significant and farreaching problem of our time.
It may seem somewhat remote to some of us but actually it directly affects us in almost everything we do. Social workers as citizens must join in assuming responsibility for helping to build a peaceful world, for without that, all other efforts are local and temporary, even futile and unreal. Now, if ever, is the time for us to widen our self-interest and to be concerned about people, not only those in our own communities but people throughout the world.
The well-being of the human race is directly related to war and peace. In addition to our serious functions as citizens, we have professional responsibilities to help promote peace in the world. There are many ways in which we can contribute, each in his own way and in accordance with his position and potentialities.
Those of us who are engaged in education for social work can help by stimulating the interchange of students. Some of us are in a position to give technical assistance abroad, particularly in underdeveloped countries. There are many programs sponsored both by governmental and by voluntary agencies. Some can give service to displaced persons or refugees who come here for settlement or who are still isolated in camps in various parts of the world.
Still others can participate in, and give support to, the International Conference of Social Work, which among other things serves to bring people from different countries together so that they can learn each other's aspirations. All of us as individuals and as groups can develop a philosophy which puts the emphasis on the human individual regardless of nationality or origin.
We can all give support to the continued development of the United Nations, and some can serve that organization in its health and welfare activities. We can all help to promote the development of a foreign policy on the part of our government which puts the emphasis on helpfulness and negotiation rather than on retribution or solely on force. The competition among the large nations of the world is more than one of arms and atoms, however important that may be.
At least equally important is a contest for moral leadership: This, of course, means that it is not possible to dissociate some of our domestic problems and practices from our international relationships.
The Communist philosophy is unacceptable to us and is in direct conflict with the basic principles both of social work and of the democratic framework under which we operate as a nation. Our system must do more than meet material needs; it must also give to the individual a feeling of genuine self-respect and dignity.
The challenge of civil liberties and equality of opportunity. Those of us who have followed the important domestic events of the past several years are thankful for the system of checks and balances in our government.
The greatest strides in race relations -and they have been great-have been made by our courts. The profound and well-managed decision of the Supreme Court in declaring that segregation in public education is unconstitutional is a climax to a long struggle. We are on the march to freedom and equal rights for all, but the events of the past year, particularly in a half dozen Southern states, offer convincing evidence that the completion of the battle is still in the future.
Here, indeed, is a challenge to all Americans, and social workers must share in large proportion the obligation and the privilege of helping. I appeal to social workers and to social agencies throughout the land to give the very best of their intelligence and of their spirit to help pave the way for a rational adjustment of this problem which has faced us for so long.
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Social workers in the South have an especially difficult task, but they must not shirk it merely because it has hazards. The members of our profession could supply some of the leadership to work out plans on a state and local basis which would move us toward the goal of equal opportunities for all in a rational and unemotional way.
We are trained, to some degree, in the skills to facilitate negotiation, to ascertain all the facts, and to interpret them to those concerned. I urge social workers everywhere to take a look first at themselves and their own attitudes and I urge social agencies to examine their own practices.
We must first put our own agencies in order before we can expect to be helpful in other areas. The specific desirable methodology to make the adjustment complete is not necessarily the same for all geographical areas and localities. While understandably the movement will be faster in some places than in others, we cannot afford to wait too long.
Our national conscience and our international relations demand that we give priority to this basic problem of democracy. Social workers have taken leadership in solving the problems of race relations. Some of you may not know, for example, that in the famous Supreme Court desegregation decision, some of the studies made under the sponsorship of the Mid-century White House Conference on Children and Youth were cited by the Court to help validate their conclusions.
But this frontier will remain until the job is complete, and that means until we no longer have a group of "second-class citizens. The type of criticism which has been leveled against the Ford Foundation-supported Fund for the Republic is evidence of one phase of the problem.
In subtle, but sometimes not too subtle ways, there is developing in this country a climate of conformity and a fear of the new or the untried. Freedom to express oneself and to dissent from popularly held ideas are concepts which we need to support vigorously in the current social scene.
It is, of course, the challenge of maintaining democracy. The challenge of improving and expanding our social security 7 Weekly Bulletin of A. One of the major economic hazards of life, ill health, still does not have adequate insurance coverage. There are two risks, both of which need to be protected by some public provision. One is the loss of wages due to sickness or disability, and the other is the actual cost of medical care during illness. The need rests only partially on the economic results of catastrophic illness.
It rests also on the continuous drain on the pocketbooks and the morale of low-income families as a result of many casual illnesses. We need to consider the possibility of a comprehensive social insurance program covering both the loss of wages and the medical cost of illness; or perhaps, as an alternative, the continued growth of public provision for medical care. Because of its controversial nature, this frontier of need requires daring and courage to study and to promote.
Persistent attention should also be given to the existing programs so that modifications can be made to meet changing conditions. We have made commendable progress in the last several decades. Additional changes are presently before the Congress.
Even if we adopt new social insurance programs there will always be a need for public assistance in a mobile and rapidly changing society. Assistance programs have developed greatly in the last quarter century, but much remains to be done. The average grants, particularly in general assistance, are not uniformly adequate; and while the rights of applicants are considered far more now than heretofore, punitive practices still exist. But let us look at the wider picture of public welfare, which includes not only public assistance but child welfare and other nonfinancial services to individuals and families, as well as to communities.
There is a challenge to the traditional public welfare agencies today to broaden their scope of activity and to be concerned not only with the financial need of people, but with their other problems as well. This is being done in some places of course, but many agencies need to broaden their horizons and focus their attention on whatever needs people might have.
In most of our cities may of these gaps are met by a network of voluntary or private social agencies, but there are vast stretches of rural areas that are covered only by public welfare agencies. In some states a broadening of function may require new legislation, but whatever is necessary to bring it about, here is a frontier which deserves our thoughtful consideration.
It is becoming increasingly difficult for even the average person to adjust to the many new situations and to new environments. The combination of wars and cold wars with their attendant anxieties, increased mobility, the growth of individualism with the resulting instability of family life, large-scale and rapid changes in folkways and mores, the pressures of a competitive economic system with its prevailing values-these and many other factors combine to complicate adjustment to contemporary life.
In the annual report of the Menninger Foundation, Dr. Menninger points out that mental ill health afflicts everyone at some time and to some degree. He says that there are now aboutpersons in mental hospitals, as large a number as in other hospitals combined. Moreover, he estimates that half of all patients of general practitioners are mentally disturbed and, moreover, one of every sixteen persons in this country has personality problems that keep him "from enjoying a useful, effective, and satisfying life.
Some emotional disturbances are minor and some have reached the acute stage, but in both cases there are things to be done, both by way of prevention and of treatment. The Federal Children's Bureau, the Child Welfare League of America, and other agencies have indicated that there are large deficiencies in available professional services to severely maladjusted children.
We have barely scratched the surface in an attempt to do research on the possibilities of either curing or preventing mental ill health. But there are evidences that we are beginning to take hold of this problem and give it the relative attention that it needs. Menninger points out in his report, the professional people can "furnish some guideposts," but the big job is one for all of us who wish "to make this topsy-turvy world we live in a better and a saner place for ourselves and for our children.
The attack on this problem, then, is threefold: The challenge of working with others toward common goals. There is a need to develop closer working relationships with other groups and professions.Function and Use of Relationships in Social Casework
We can be helpful to them and they to us. A better understanding of each other's functions and resources could well improve services to people. Let me cite one example: The great religions in our Western culture have much in common with our profession. Basically, we all believe in the sanctity of the individual personality, and our common goal is a more useful and happier life for each person.
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The unquestioned difficulties should not make us shy away from the development of a mutual understanding of functions and more effective reciprocal relationships. Organized religion has resources which can be used in social work in the treatment of individual patients or clients, and it has tremendous potential power to effect social reform. Likewise, our profession has resources which can well be used by the church. This is understandable, but have we not arrived at the point where we no longer need be defensive?
Are we not sufficiently secure now to dare tackle problems formerly evaded? I would caution against any approach that would be narrow or sectarian. Regardless of our affiliation, or lack of it, with an organized religious group, I think most of us would agree that spiritual resources are important to the well-being of people.
Our literature supports this affirmation. There are many other groups with which we need to promote more effective relationships. We need to get together with employers and unions in relation to the employment of handicapped people; with psychologists, to work out our respective functions, particularly in agencies in which we both work; with the press and other channels of communication, so as more accurately to have our services interpreted; with those engaged in education, to work out common problems; with our legislators and public officials, if for no other reason than to develop mutual respect for each others' motives.
This list is meant to be only illustrative; it could be expanded greatly. The time is ripe to do something about this frontier of developing helpful relationships with other groups. The challenge of automation and mechanization. It is a problem that has long been with us but, due to the acceleration of the rate of change, one that now deserves far more attention than heretofore.
It has been said that mechanization is the situation in which 8 Helen Leland Witmer and Ruth Kotinsky, eds. Though in slightly different form, the problem exists both in rural and urban areas. A leading automobile manufacturer installed automated machines in his engine assembly line. It is estimated that there is a saving of 25 percent in the assembly costs of producing engines.
Out of every men, 50 are displaced by this new automatic process. It is reported that work crews are being cut from seventeen men to seven or eight. These are only samples of what is happening in American industry.
The same process of mechanization is taking place in agriculture. With fewer people we can produce vastly more units of goods. The results of such a great progress in technology are farreaching, both for the present and for the future.
Automation means large-scale displacement of workers, which necessitates important changes in our social and economic institutions. Add atomic energy for peaceful purposes and the needed changes become even more important. As machinery displaces manpower in industry, we need to give serious thought to the possibility of changes in the workday and workweek, to the development of more effective leisure-time activities, to retraining programs, to new work opportunities, to changes in the methods of paying for work on a longer time basis, to changes in vacation periods, to opportunities for earlier retirement, and to an increase in our standards of living.
Some such adjustments must come if we are to avoid a heavy human cost of unemployment and misery. In the last fifty years the productivity of the average man has multiplied threefold. Louis Post-Dispatch, January 1, Instead man's ends lie in the quality of life that increased leisure makes possible. The challenge of suburbia. Our services need to be located where people can use them. In practically all the great metropolitan areas of the country there has been since a significant movement of population from the central areas of our cities to the suburbs.
While this movement of population began around the turn of the century, it has been particularly marked during the last twenty-five years. In the decade from tothe increase in population of central cities was 5. Since the discrepancy, if anything, has widened. So we find ourselves with groups of people who frequently live in the suburbs and work in the central city. Quite apart from the many problems of physical planning which these population movements bring about, there is the problem of reorganizing, rearranging, or relocating health and welfare service activities.
Success in this undertaking requires imagination and flexibility. Old organization methods do not always fit the new situation. In the field of recreation and social group work, to take one example, a small suburb of 3, people cannot support programs given by three or four national or local autonomous agencies. Moreover, such an arrangement would be wasteful and extrava10 See Yale Brozen, "Automation: Louis Post-Dispatch, September 4, McGraw-Hill,p.
Does not such a situation call for cooperation among several agencies and among suburbs? Racial segregation in health and welfare is not justified in any situation but even less so in a small suburb where the possibility of setting up two separate services is completely uneconomical and untenable.
Here is a frontier that requires rational forward planning by all agencies, but particularly by councils of social agencies and social planning councils and federations. The challenge of a changing population composition. In there were 4, births in this country, and the number increased in to about 4, Of the , people in the country today about 55 million are children under the age of eighteen, and about 14 million are sixty-five years and over.
This means that something over 40 percent of our population are in the generally nonproducing early ages of life or in the age bracket which, in our culture, is considered to be the age of retirement. This unusual situation is a result primarily of the sustained postwar high birth rates and the increased life expectancy at the other end of the population scale.
Now what does this situation mean to the people's health and 13 Teachers for Tomorrow, the Fund for the Advancement of Education, Bulletin No. Broadly speaking, it means that even if we give the same relative quantity and quality of service to children and to the aged as we have given in the past, the services for these groups will have to be expanded greatly.
Specifically, it means more teachers and school buildings, more child guidance clinics and child welfare activities, more pediatric and geriatric service in medicine, more recreation and protective services for both groups, and so on. We are talking here just about numbers and how the change in numbers will bring large demand upon our efforts. This is quite aside from the fact that services to both of these groups in the past could hardly be considered completely adequate in relation to modern standards.
This population phenomenon may mean many adjustments in the relative emphasis of agency programs. Locality by locality it is something that needs careful study by all. The challenge of prevention. To a large degree our efforts have been concentrated on treatment, with lesser emphasis on preventing the ills from happening in the first place.
Is there not work to do in the area of attempting to prevent mass poverty, large-scale family breakdown, widespread juvenile and adult delinquency, mental illness, handicapping conditions?
We have made more headway perhaps in the prevention of mass poverty through such programs as social insurance, the minimum wage, low-cost housing, establishment of adequate wage scales and working conditions, and so on, than in other areas, but even here more work needs to be done, especially in certain segments of our population, such as in rural areas, the South, and among minority groups. A caseworker who is trying to give facilitative help to a client or patient may find that restoration of self-maintenance or normal living is not possible by treatment on an individual basis and that the only way that person can be restored to health is by the provision of some nonexisting community service, or a change in some social institution, or the availability of resources quite outside the person.
Many, if not most, of the pathological situations can be averted or prevented at least in part by proper planning and foresight. But this takes a long view and a wide horizon. In an excellent issue of Medical Social Work Dr. Gerald Caplan, of Harvard University, points out that we ought to widen our circle of interest from the mother-child relationships to the father, to the siblings, to the grandparents, to the school, and to our whole social structure and culture.
He says that the social worker is a "specialist in assessing environmental phenomena. Caplan thinks that use of the "knowledge of the unconscious implications of overt behavior" need not be restricted to the intrapersonal phenomena but this knowledge and this sensitivity can be used effectively "in regard to the environmental forces which impinge upon people.
To be sure, it includes provision for decent housing, fair labor standards, protection against adulterated foods and drugs, public health measures, provision of income maintenance through such programs as social insurance, and so forth. A preventive approach should pervade all our activities even though our specific job involves primarily individual treatment.
In other words, a caseworker should be actively interested not only in his own case load but in all the families and children of his community.
The same would be true in the case of adoption laws and preventive mental health clinics, to cite but two examples. I would hope that social workers who are working with individual patients or clients would also be interested in the causes of the conditions they are trying to treat and would be involved in some effort to eliminate those causes. We are challenged to continue the zeal of the pioneers of our profession, to maintain an active interest in preventive activities, and not to put all our eggs in the one basket of individual treatment after the ill occurs.
These are some of the challenges that face us. What is the appropriate response to such a complex array both by the social work profession and by its cooperating citizen volunteers?
SAGE Books - Working with Child Abuse and Neglect: A Primer
The challenge of change is a challenge to take a look at ourselves and our institutions on an objective basis and to sort out those things that continue to be effective and those that have outlived their usefulness. It does not mean that we should abandon everything that we have done or stood for in the past. For example, if the profession of social work is to fulfill its historic mission it must continue to be the conscience of the community.
We must never lose that function. It is our job to know the needs of people as individuals and as groups. It is our job to determine these needs on a scientific basis through fact-finding and research.
It is our job to interpret these needs to the whole community and to make every legitimate effort to see that the gaps are filled and, if possible, that the ills are prevented.
A businessman several months ago severely criticized our profession for being unrealistic, for always wanting more services, for never being satisfied. Said he, "Don't you people know that the spigot sometimes runs dry? It is not the job of social work to play down needs, to blink at them, to cover them up.
That would be dishonest to one of our basic responsibilities as a profession. It is true there are at times limits to the expansion of services at a given moment. With our actual and potential productive capacity in this country, with our surpluses and abundance, who is there who will seriously argue that we cannot afford to give appropriate service to our maladjusted, retarded, homeless, and neglected children? Or to our dependent aged? Or to the handicapped? Or to the mentally ill?
The casework relationship
Or to those just in trouble? And if we want to be so very practical, who will seriously argue that we should not spend some money to provide services that will prevent social breakdown, or family disintegration, or human misery of whatever form?
Your training and knowledge of human behavior will serve as an excellent foundation on which to add specific knowledge aimed at helping you understand, treat, and prevent child abuse and neglect.
A third audience to which this book is directed is persons who may not have an education in a mental health discipline but are employed or are volunteering in the field of child abuse and neglect. This book will provide you with a theoretical understanding of factors associated with child abuse and neglect.
From this theoretical understanding, you should be able to identify strategies for intervening in abusive or neglectful families or ways to prevent maltreatment in families at risk. I hope that the book also will stimulate you to read more about child maltreatment.
Numerous references to the literature are provided throughout the book for this purpose. The Content Knowledge about child abuse and neglect is developing at an explosive rate.
Professionals in many fields, such as social work, medicine, nursing, psychology, psychiatry, criminal justice, and education, are addressing this social problem from their unique perspectives. Nearly every issue of the journals in these disciplines includes at least one article related to the subject of child maltreatment.
Conferences at national and regional levels are being held at which professionals share new research findings and new treatment and preventive strategies in child maltreatment.
In the light of the rapid explosion of knowledge in child maltreatment, I faced the dilemma of what should be included in the book [Page xiii]and the way the book should be written. Some may even argue that the wealth of information on these two problems—child abuse and child neglect—indicates the value of separate treatments rather than discussion of both subjects within a single text. First, I assumed that most readers would have basic knowledge in understanding human behavior or have access to individuals and resources with this information.
Rather than repeat this knowledge, I emphasize applying it to working specifically with child abuse and neglect. For example, I give little emphasis to basic principles of interviewing clients. Interviewing techniques will be applied to the unique setting of working with abusive and neglectful families. Similarly, emphasis is placed on applying basic empirical research knowledge, already acquired, to evaluating treatment effectiveness in child maltreatment.
Second, I chose to interpret the concept of working with child abuse and neglect in a broad rather than a narrow sense. Rather than focusing only on direct interventions with individuals and families involved in child maltreatment, I chose to include information on social policy issues relative to child maltreatment.
Thus, I include information on historical efforts in the United States to cope with this problem, the politics of child abuse and neglect, the scope and impact of the problem, and the prevention of child maltreatment. Successful interventions in child maltreatment or efforts to prevent this problem rest on effective public policies at the local, state, and national levels.
Third, I was confronted with the many differences in state statutes relevant to child abuse and neglect, various models for delivering protective and mental health services, and the differing structures of the courts across the country. I therefore present information in a general sense, noting that differences will occur across states and that readers must become familiar with structures, statutes, and policies in their communities.
Fourth, although individuals with various educational backgrounds work with child abuse and neglect in many different settings, such as child protective services agencies, courts, hospitals, schools, mental health centers, and state and federal legislatures, I wrote this book primarily from the perspective of a mental health professional employed in a child protective services agency.
Because it is intended as a starting point, the book contains numerous references to the published literature in this subject area and information on state and national organizations working in this field.
Reading this literature or contacting these organizations, the latter listed in Appendix Bwill provide a wealth of helpful information in understanding and intervening in child abuse and neglect.