UK can't get enough of Sweden, survey reveals - The Local
The foreign policy of Sweden is based on the premise that national security is best served by . the Salman Rushdie affair, and the storming of the British embassy in Tehran), Sweden served as the protecting power for the UK. Trade between Britain and Sweden. The treaty of between Sweden and the British Empire still valid today; confirmed in relation to Canada by an exchange. Despite a recent explosion of Scandinavian TV dramas broadcast in the UK portraying Sweden as a bleak, crime-ridden nation, a new survey.
We were surrounded by marching armies. We had to work out our own policy of resisting aggression and compulsion never found the way to our hearts. That is why we have been ready to listen to British voices.
They have been gentle words as spoken by a man who knows his own might. They have been friendly. And we said to ourselves: People who are strong enough to live and let us live, they are our kind of people. They hold similar ideas of democracy. At the beginning of the nineteenth century Sweden was an impoverished country, desperately in need of social reforms to set her house in order again.
She had been engaged in a long struggle over a period of many centuries in her efforts to consolidate a Baltic Empire. Consequently, you will find that Sweden in the past had her part in power politics. For three hundred years we fought and bled on foreign fields. If you refer to the records of any small Swedish parish of the time between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries, you will find entries of Swedish soldiers who fell in battles abroad.
The Swedish people had their full share of fighting, not only for three centuries but much longer than that. We have now developed into a unified small country determined to live in our own way. All through our history from the period of the Vikings we have been in close touch with the British. Since the Middle Ages the two peoples never have borne arms against each other. It might be just as well, for the sake of contemporary history, to carry you back to a very early period.
It will help you to understand us better. We happen to have a good account of conditions in Sweden in the sixth and seventh centuries from the English Beowulf poem. At that time the ruling elements in Sweden were the Goths and the Swedish. The Goths were established in the southern part of Sweden, but they had lost much of their strength in constant emigration to foreign shores. The Swedish elements in the northern part of the country emerged victorious in the struggle for power, and the Beowulf poem has furnished us with a vivid description of those times.
During the eighth century Sweden became a unified country, and the Kingdom of Sweden was established. I am told by my wife, who has Scottish ancestors with many earlier traditions from Northern Ireland, that the Viking expeditions to England started with a visit to the Irish monastery of Lindisfarne in She rather hesitated to mention what happened to the monastery but I assume that this event contributed greatly toward the efforts of the English to converting us to Christianity.
At any rate, the following centuries led to a continued flow of Viking settlement in England, resulting in a strong influx of Scandinavian blood. From that time on, we have had many links of language and thought, right down through the centuries to the present day. The Vikings also established the Duchy of Normandy in France. They came mainly from Denmark and Sweden. The Duchy was established inbut its boundaries were somewhat extended on two later occasions, in and I believe in When I lived in Normandy inthe Normans celebrated the thousandth anniversary of the second settlement, and I was very kindly invited.
The celebration took place in Bayeux, and I had the privilege of meeting Norman representatives from Guernsey and Jersey, Scotland and Wales, and Canada. It was strictly a family gathering and I was greeted as a member of the family.
The absence of actual warfare in the history of the relations between Sweden and Great Britain is a definite achievement in view of the reputation we had acquired in the earlier centuries of being a rather belligerent nation, somewhat difficult to get along with. But England had a great deal to do with the development of this close relationship. England brought Christianity to Sweden. This was in the eleventh century.
He was followed by many others. The Swedish city of Eskilstuna--which is mainly known for the excellence of the tools manufactured there--was named after Saint Eskil. The Anglo-Saxon influence on the Church of Sweden has been very strong and active. There has been a tendency to overlook how much the old connections and the traditional trade with England have meant to Sweden. One of the Swedish kings sent his emissaries to London in in order to negotiate a commercial treaty.
They were given instructions in which special reference was made to the fact that "in former days, and particularly some few hundred years ago, a warm friendship had existed between the two countries and the two peoples had carried on a considerable trade with each other to their mutual advantage". It is interesting to note from such a document that the trade monopoly of the Hanseatic League had not succeeded in breaking the old Swedish links with England. At the time of Cromwell, England was the main importer of wood and iron from Sweden.
Trade between the two countries was active and a most important factor in their economic life. A treaty was concluded in It has remained in force as a proof of the stability of our relations with the British Empire.
This agreement, as well as later treaties from various periods down towas still listed in the last handbook of the Swedish Foreign Office as having ruling force.
The treaty of is actually valid between Sweden and Canada this very day, as well as the other treaties I have mentioned.
They were confirmed in relation to Canada by an exchange of notes dating from You will be interested in knowing that the world-wide reputation of the city of Sheffield in England for high grade steel products, especially cutlery, was originally made on the basis of Swedish ore, which was the highest grade obtainable at that time.
This was a strong foundation for our trade with England. We also had a rich natural resource in fairly large deposits of copper. A company operating these deposits and still in existence dates back to the yearwhen privileges were first given to them as a share-holding company. They had been established in Sweden for three hundred years. Much later English merchants came to the western coast of Sweden and settled down in the city of Gothenburg. Some of them have played an important part in the development of our forest industries.
When new and improved Methods of agriculture were introduced in Sweden inthe lead was taken by Rutger Maclean who followed English models. The first steam engine was introduced in Sweden in by the Englishman, Samuel Owen.
It is really not any more astonishing to meet those names in Sweden than it is to find a great many words of Scandinavian origin in the English language, dating back to the time when Danish, Norwegian and Swedish chieftains established the Danelaw in the north-eastern part of England.
Even now Swedish fishermen can manage fairly well to understand fishermen from Scotland. Their accents are rather alike.
Foreign relations of Sweden - Wikipedia
There are less thanpeople of Swedish descent in Canada, counting the second generation, but they brought to this Dominion traditions from Sweden which in many respects are close to English traditions. They have the same sense of local self-government and independence. A Swedish country court consists of a judge and twelve men elected among the people of the community.
If the latter are unanimous they can overrule the judge and give the decision of the court. Such people do a great deal of thinking for themselves and they are not easily regimented. But they have been easily assimilated in Canada because they felt at home with you.
Swedish people who have settled in Canada feel that, if this country is good enough to live in, it is good enough to die for. And they take a tremendous pride in this Dominion, speaking with her own voice among the nations.
Swedish Canadians have followed with keen interest the stand of Sweden in the present war. I believe they have noticed that the Swedish people have been ready to fight for their country, even with all odds against them. When Denmark and Norway were invaded, Sweden had a difficult choice to make. Should we have resigned ourselves to the thought of complete domination of the Northern countries by a foreign power? It was perfectly clear that our resources at that time were not sufficient for anything but our own defence, if attacked.
We made our choice. The only thing we could possibly do was to keep our own country free, to keep our faith in the future and redouble the strengthening of our own defence. The position of Sweden in the World War has been determined by two main considerations. Immediately upon the outbreak of the war Sweden, as did Denmark and Norway, declared that her policy was aimed at safeguarding her independence with all means at her disposal.
We had no political alliances. This policy of independence meant neutrality. None of the Northern countries could have taken any other course, because of their limited military strength and their economic structure. We had to rely upon ourselves. Sweden has no oil and no coal, which are essential to our economic life. The second consideration in deciding our policy was therefore that we must make some arrangements with the belligerent powers in order to secure a minimum of necessary supplies and we had to build up our army.
Otherwise we would have lost all liberty of action. As a matter of fact we are satisfied in our own minds that our military preparedness saved our independence in In December,Sweden signed a wartime trade agreement with Great Britain. This was based upon an undertaking to limit our exports to prewar levels, so that our most essential imports might continue.
Before the war England took a greater part of our exports than any other country, or some 24 percent. All exports to countries within the British Empire amounted to some 30 percent of the total. Germany took some 16 percent. On the other hand our imports from Germany exceeded those from England. During the early period of the war we could carry on trade on the basis of this agreement, which meant that exports to Germany did not exceed prewar levels. Immediately upon the outbreak of the war we had introduced complete control of our foreign trade.
When Norway and Denmark were invaded in April,the situation changed completely. We had iron ore shipments for Great Britain which could no longer go forward because of the German blockade. This did not increase the shipments of iron ore to Germany.
On the contrary, we gradually reduced them. But we had depended upon Great Britain for our supply of coal, over 50 percent of our imports having come from England and some 30 percent from Poland.
The Polish mines had been taken over by the Germans at the initial stage of the war and British shipments could no longer get through after the occupation of Norway.
Without coal we could not keep our industries going and we had to maintain them in order to keep our army supplied. We had to drive a bargain to get it in return for iron ore and we have not shipped more than we needed to cover the coal we required.
It is not generally known that after the invasion of Norway, Swedish shipowners placed at the disposal of the Alliestons of Swedish ships. Of those there are onlytons left; the rest have been sunk. Many of those ships had come to Canadian ports and were well known there. The total of lives lost in the Swedish merchant marine is some 1, They died in war services.
Nor is it so well known that even after the German blockade some trade has continued between Sweden and England. No Swedish reports have appeared on the subject, but one was recently released from London that a small fleet of fast-going British boats had kept up a regular traffic through the German blockade, from the Swedish port of Lysekil on our western coast to England.
One of those ships, specially built, was named the Corsair and carried a picture of Nelson in the captain's cabin, which was very small' indeed. Those ships brought Swedish ball bearings to England. That is, of course, a tribute to British daring and British seamanship. But the shipments were made from Swedish territory and they did reach their destination.
A small fleet of Norwegian ships happened to be in Swedish waters at the time of the invasion of Norway. The owners, who were then in occupied territory, asked for their release.
UK help and services in Sweden
The Norwegian Government in London, on the other hand, claimed that all Norwegian ships were under their orders. The Supreme Court of Sweden decided that they were not to be released for return to occupied territory. Finally, on January 1,Sweden became a member of the European Union.Swedish Dating: How to Date Swedish Girls
While some argued that it went against Sweden's historic policy of neutrality, where Sweden had not joined during the Cold War because it was seen as incompatible with neutrality, others viewed the move as a natural extension of the economic cooperation that had been going on since with the EU. In membership negotiations in —, Sweden also had reserved the right to make the final decision on whether to join the third stage of the EMU "in light of continued developments.
Voter turnout was high, The main Swedish concerns included winning popular support for EU cooperation, EU enlargement, and strengthening the EU in areas such as economic growth, job promotion, and environmental issues.
In polls taken a few years after the referendum, many Swedes indicated that they were unhappy with Sweden's membership in the EU. However, after Sweden successfully hosted its first presidency of the EU in the first half ofmost Swedes today have a more positive attitude towards the EU. The government, with the support of the Center Partydecided in spring to remain outside of the EMU, at least until A referendum was held on September 14, The results were Nordic Council[ edit ] Swedish foreign policy has been the result of a wide consensus.