The student-mentor relationship: a review of the literature
Nurse mentors have to assess the students that they are supporting, so being .. eight key components of an effective mentoring relationship, giving examples. Mentor and mentee relationships help individuals, at various stages of their This stage is defined by two individuals who enter a mentor and mentee in as little as one year, fast-tracking students on the path to success. Nurs Stand. May ;20(37) The student-mentor relationship: a review of the literature. Wilkes Z(1). Author information: (1)University of Hull, Hull.
Participants were recruited with assistance from the Reinvention Center, a research university consortium, and the Council on Undergraduate Research, which promotes undergraduate student-faculty collaborative research. Both organizations emailed letters describing the study to their members.
Mentorship - Wikipedia
Data Collection Participants took part in a single workshop that lasted four hours. The goal is for the group to have a comprehensive, focused discussion and reach consensus on the topic of interest, which, in this case, was the identification of key components of an effective mentoring relationship.
First, context was established with a focus question: Answers consisted of brief phrases. In the third step, clustering, the facilitator guided participants in grouping the brief phrases into similar clusters.
In the fourth step, naming, participants titled each cluster of ideas. In the fifth step, resolving, the group determined whether anything was left out and if ideas generated were complete.
Data Analysis Audiotaped data were transcribed verbatim. Conventional content analysis, in which coding categories were informed by the literature and derived directly from transcribed and workshop data, was employed Hsieh, Mosaic mentoring is based on the concept that almost everyone can perform one or another function well for someone else — and also can learn along one of these lines from someone else. The model is seen as useful for people who are "non-traditional" in a traditional setting, such as people of color and women in a traditionally white male organization.
The idea has been well received in medical education literature. Corporate mentoring programs are used by mid-size to large organizations to further the development and retention of employees.
Mentoring programs may be formal or informal and serve a variety of specific objectives including acclimation of new employees, skills development, employee retention and diversity enhancement.
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Formal programs[ edit ] Formal mentoring programs offer employees the opportunity to participate in an organized mentoring program. Mentoring profiles are completed as written forms on paper or computer or filled out via an online form as part of an online mentoring system. Informal mentoring takes places in organizations that develop a culture of mentoring but do not have formal mentoring in place.
These companies may provide some tools and resources and encourage managers to accept mentoring requests from more junior members of the organization.
The student-mentor relationship: a review of the literature
Fortune companies are also implementing formal mentoring programs on a global scale. Cardinal Health has had an enterprise-wide formal mentoring initiative in place since The initiative encompasses nine formal mentoring programs, some enterprise-wide and some limited to specific business segments and functions. Goals vary by program, with some focused on employees facing specific challenges or career milestones and others enabling more open-ended learning and development. It has been claimed that new employees who are paired with a mentor are twice as likely to remain in their job than those who do not receive mentorship.
For example, the mentor gets to show leadership by giving back and perhaps being refreshed about their own work. The organization receives an employee that is being gradually introduced and shaped by the organization's culture and operation because they have been under the mentorship of an experienced member.
The person being mentored networks, becomes integrated easier in an organization, gets experience and advice along the way. Bullis describes the mentoring process in the forms of phase models. Initially, the "mentee proves himself or herself worthy of the mentor's time and energy". Then cultivation occurs which includes the actual "coaching Next, under the phase of separation, "the mentee experiences more autonomy".
Ultimately, there is more of equality in the relationship, termed by Bullis as Redefinition. These programs tend to be smaller than more general mentoring programs and mentees must be selected based on a list of eligibility criteria to participate.
Another method of high-potential mentoring is to place the employee in a series of jobs in disparate areas of an organization e. The matching committee reviews the mentors' profiles and the coaching goals sought out by the mentees and makes matches based on areas for development, mentor strengths, overall experience, skill set, location and objectives. Matching through self-match technology Mentoring technology, typically based on computer software, can be used to facilitate matches allowing mentees to search and select a mentor based on their own development and coaching needs and interests.
This mentee-driven methodology increases the speed in which matches are created and reduces the amount of administrative time required to manage the program.
Speed mentoring Speed mentoring follows some of the procedures of speed dating. Mentors and mentees are introduced to each other in short sessions, allowing each person to meet multiple potential matches in a very short timeframe.
Speed mentoring occur as a one-time event in order for people "to meet potential mentors to see if there is a fit for a longer term engagement. Peer mentoring In many secondary and post-secondary schools, mentorship programs are offered to support students in program completion, confidence building and transitioning to further education or the workforce.
There are also peer mentoring programs designed specifically to bring under-represented populations into science and engineering. Graduate university alumni are engaging with current students in career mentorship through interview questions and answers. The students with the best answers receive professional recommendations from industry experts build a more credible CV. Instructional coaches[ edit ] Instructional coaches are former teachers or principals that have shown effectiveness in their work of teaching or leading and go through additional training to learn more about the technical skills needed to be an effective coach.
The discussions between the instructional coach and teacher are built upon mutual respect and a trusting relationship through confidentiality. Instructional coaches can model lessons and instructional strategies in the teachers' classroom to show examples and have teachers feel more confident in using these strategies.
Coaches doing observations and collecting data to debrief with teachers helps paint a picture for teacher improvement. This, however, could not be viewed as solely "instructional coaching" in isolation of other factors. Ninety-one percent of teachers coached regularly stated that coaches helped them understand and use new teaching strategies.
Seventy-nine percent of teachers coached regularly said that their coach played a significant role in improving their classroom instruction and practice.
Teachers who were regularly coached one-on-one reported that: They made significant changes in their instructional practice. Their students were more engaged in the classroom and enthusiastic about learning.
Attendance increased dramatically in their classes. Administrative support[ edit ] There should also be support from administration around the instructional coaching to align the work of the coach and teacher with the school's mission or vision. Knight explains that the principal and the instructional coach need to be aligned in their goals for the coaching occurring. Knight shares how giving opinions and telling a teacher how to improve stops the learning for the teacher and instead creates a barrier between the coach and teacher and makes the teacher expect hand-holding.
Instead, the data needs to tell a story for the teacher to determine moves to try to improve. This allows ownership for the teacher as well as understanding of their work in conjunction with the work. Another way to build this trust is through confidentiality.
The student-mentor relationship: a review of the literature.
By keeping all conversations confidential and sticking to that, the coachee knows that your word is good. In addition to relationship building, it is important to let the coachee feel comfortable talking to you about anything—there may need to be the time when a crisis they are facing trumps conversation about the lesson. Content and pedagogical knowledge[ edit ] According to Nelson and Sassi, "knowledge of pedagogical process and content knowledge must be fused" in both understanding teaching and observing teaching.
Knowledge that coaches need to be effective span just content and pedagogical knowledge. Aguilar uses the ladder of inference to allow coaches to evaluate their own thoughts, and ultimately use this ladder to help principals and teachers evaluate their own beliefs before jumping to assumptions.
Aguilar states that her "list of beliefs has changed over the years. You can change yours, too. The point is to be mindful of the beliefs from which we're working and to notice the effect of working from those beliefs. Reverse mentoring[ edit ] In the reverse mentoring situation, the mentee has less overall experience typically as a result of age than the mentor who is typically olderbut the mentee has more knowledge in a particular area, and as such, reverses the typical constellation.
Even a student who is doing well could need an occasional, serious conversation. One way to increase your awareness of important student issues and develop rapport is to work with student organizations and initiatives. This will also increase your accessibility to students. No mentor can know everything a given student might need to learn in order to succeed.
Everyone benefits from multiple mentors of diverse talents, ages, and personalities. No one benefits when a mentor is too "possessive" of a student.
Page 6 Share Cite Suggested Citation: For example, if you are a faculty member advising a physics student who would like to work in the private sector, you might encourage him or her to find mentors in industry as well. A non-Hispanic faculty member advising a Hispanic student might form an advising team that includes a Hispanic faculty member in a related discipline.
Other appropriate mentors could include other students, more-advanced postdoctoral associates, and other faculty in the same or other fields.
A good place to find additional mentors is in the disciplinary societies, where students can meet scientists, engineers, and students from their own or other institutions at different stages of development. Page 7 Share Cite Suggested Citation: For example, a group of mentors might be able to hire an outside speaker or consultant whom you could not afford on your own.
You can be a powerful ally for students by helping them build their network of contacts and potential mentors. Advise them to begin with you, other faculty acquaintances, and off-campus people met through jobs, internships, or chapter meetings of professional societies.
Building a professional network is a lifelong process that can be crucial in finding a satisfying position and career. Professional Ethics Be alert for ways to illustrate ethical issues and choices.
The earlier that students are exposed to the notion of scientific integrity, the better prepared they will be to deal with ethical questions that arise in their own work.
Discuss your policies on grades, conflicts of interest, authorship credits, and who goes to meetings.Simon Sinek: Why Reciprocity Improves Mentor Mentee Relationships
Use real-life questions to help the student understand what is meant by scientific misconduct: What would you do if I asked you to cut corners in your work?
What would you do if you had a boss who was unethical? Most of all, show by your own example what you mean by ethical conduct. Responsible Conduct in Researchalso available on line. Population-Diversity Issues In years to come, female students and students of minority groups might make up the majority of the population Page 8 Share Cite Suggested Citation: