Foreign relations of Iraq - Wikipedia
Iraq's relations with the Arab world have been extremely varied. of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's peace initiatives with Israel. Africa, to date has been impacted by the Iraqi crisis, and if there is a war with Iraq from Latin America and Africa on the Security Council, even though there are. Iran–South Africa relations refers to the historical and current bilateral relationship of the Islamic he was received by B J Vorster. During the Iran–Iraq War, South Africa is believed to have sold defence technology to Iran in exchange for oil.
Indonesia has maintained its embassy in Baghdad during various crises, such as the Iran—Iraq war in the s. However, at the height of the Iraq WarIndonesia was forced to temporarily closed its embassy in Baghdad inand reopen it in June Over 50, Indonesian people crowded the streets of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta on Sunday, February 9,to protest the United States' threat of military action against Iraq.
Iraq invited Indonesia's companies to participate in the reconstruction of Iraq. On the other hand, Iraqi people are familiar with Indonesian exported products such as tires, soaps, spices, furniture, coal, clothing, palm oil, shoes, paper, automobiles, rubber and electronic goods. Although the reasons for Saddam Husayn's decision to invade Iran were complicated, the leaders of the Baath Party had long resented Iranian hegemony in the Persian Gulf region and had especially resented the perceived Iranian interference in Iraq's internal affairs both before and after the Islamic Revolution.
Their objectives were to halt any potential foreign assistance to the Shias and to the Kurdish opponents of the regime and to end Iranian domination of the area. The Baathists believed a weakened Iran would be incapable of posing a security threat and could not undermine Iraq's efforts to exercise the regional influence that had been blocked by non-Arab Iran since the mids. By earlythe Iraqi occupation forces were on the defensive and were being forced to retreat from some of their forward lines.
In JuneSaddam Hussein ordered most of the Iraqi units to withdraw from Iranian territory; after that time, the Ba'athist government tried to obtain a cease-fire based on a return of all armed personnel to the international borders that prevailed as of September 21, Iran did not accept Iraq's offer to negotiate an end to the war. Subsequently, Iranian forces invaded Iraq by crossing the Shatt al Arab in the south and by capturing some mountain passes in the north.
To discourage Iran's offensive, the Iraqi air force initiated bombing raids over several Iranian cities and towns. The air raids brought Iranian retaliation, which included the aerial bombing of Baghdad. Although Iraq eventually pushed back and contained the Iranian advances, it was not able to force Iranian troops completely out of Iraqi territory.
The perceived threat to Iraq in the summer of thus was serious enough to force Saddam Hussein to request the Nonaligned Movement to change the venue of its scheduled September meeting from Baghdad to India; nevertheless, since the fall ofthe ground conflict has generally been a stalemated war of attrition—although Iran made small but demoralizing territorial advances as a result of its massive offensives in the reed marshes north of Basra in and inin Al Faw Peninsula in earlyand in the outskirts of Basra during January and February In addition, as of early the government had lost control of several mountainous districts in Kurdistan where, sincedissident Kurds have cooperated militarily with Iran.
For most of civil war the U.
Iraq faces a crucible after Mosul: South Africa offers some useful lessons
Based on this information whose side do you think the Angolan government is likely to support in the current Iraqi debate in the Security Council? Before you make up you mind, you should do some research on Angola on your own. You should also know that the government of Angola is very anxious to rebuild the country now that the devastating civil war is over. In order to develop its petroleum industry Angola needs international investment and expertise.
Who is best suited to provide this investment and expertise? Cameroon has an interesting colonial history. Originally, it was a colony of Germany. As a result of this treaty Cameroon was divided between the French and the British, with the French receiving the largest territory. As part of the independence agreement in the French and British sections of Cameroon were reunited.
Since independence Cameroon has been quite closely aligned with it France its former colonial power. Many observers feel that this historical association with France will cause the government of Cameroon to side with France in the Security Council and vote against the U. This speculation may be too simple. What do other experts think? Like Cameroon, Guinea is a former colony of France.
This means that the foreign minister like the U. Secretary of State will chair the meeting in which the new Iraq resolution is debated and voted on. The presidency of the council does not give Guinea additional power, but it does increase its exposure in the limelight. This factor in combination with the fact that Guinea was once a colony of France has led some commentators to believe that Guinea will vote against the U.
This is a strong argument, but it should be remembered that of all the former French colonies in Africa, Guinea has had the most troubled relationship with France. Consequently, Guinea may be reluctant to align itself too closely with the French on this issue. To learn more about Guinea and the position it may take in the Security Council link to: The Presidents of these countries have each received personal phone calls from President Bush the first time he has ever called these leaders!
In addition, immediately following the March 7th debate, the French foreign minister and the deputy foreign minister of the United Kingdom paid visits to each of these three countries! What arguments and incentives has each side used to persuade the leaders of Angola, Cameroon and Guinea to support their side? Since these conversations and meetings are confidential we cannot be sure, but experts think that there has been a combination of incentives with warnings.
Both France and the U. In addition, it is likely that the both France and the U.
Each of the African members of the Security Council will remember that immediately after Yemen voted against a similar U. To countries as economically needy as Angola, Cameroon, and Guinea, the threat of a reduction of much needed external support has to be taken seriously and will be weighted against the potential benefits of voting for the other side.
Three countries represent all of Africa. The leaders of Angola, Cameroon, and Guinea will decide how they will caste their votes in the decisive vote on the U. However, in making their decision the respective leaders will take into consideration the views of other African countries. Africa is allocated three seats as non-permanent members on the Security Council. Every year a new African nation is elected for a two-year term by the entire 54 nation African delegation at the United Nations.
Iran–South Africa relations - Wikipedia
Consequently, the three African nations who sit on the Council unofficially represent all African countries that are members of the United Nations. In late February at an executive meeting of the African Union the African leaders voted unanimously for a resolution that opposed a preemptive war against Iraq.
The question is whether the three African members of the Security Council will reflect this perspective in their votes on the new resolution. The Non-Aligned Movement was developed at the height of the Cold War by nations that did not want to align themselves with either superpower.
At this meeting Angola, Cameroon, and Guinea each voted for a resolution against the use of force against Iraq. Does this vote help us guess which way each of these countries will vote on the new Security Council resolution? Rocco Buttiglione, head of the Italian delegation, confirmed the necessity to promote parliamentary relations with Iraq, and expressed solidarity with the Iraqi people in confronting the decade-old U. Roberto Formigoni was later involved in the Oil-for-food scandal, when he bought 1, oil barrelsm3.
The involvement of Italy in the invasion of Iraq[ edit ] Main article: Operation Ancient Babylon In Januaryactivists of the Italian Radical Party tried to broker an agreement Free Iraq campaign that would lead to the exile of Saddam Hussein and to a peaceful transition in Iraq, thus stopping the invasion.
Iran–South Africa relations
The Italian Parliament had mandated the government, who had accepted, to pursue the Free Iraq aim, as an alternative to war. Powell presented evidence alleging that Iraq was actively producing chemical and biological weapons and had ties to al-Qaeda. In his March 17, address to the nation, Bush demanded that Hussein and his two sons, Uday and Qusaysurrender and leave Iraq, giving them a hour deadline.
Unlike the first Gulf War or the war in Afghanistan —presentthis war had no explicit UN authorisation. Due to the Iraq war many historical artifacts have either been stolen or damaged; however, over 40 ivory pieces were restored in Rome, in the workshops of the Istituto Centrale per il Restauro Central Institute for Restoration.
Baghdad 's Iraqi National Museum owns the greatest collection of Assyrian ivories in the world.