Lever rule ternary relationship

Tertiary Diagram | Fundamentals of Fluid Flow in Porous Media

lever rule ternary relationship

Figure 1 shows a three dimensional representation of the three component ( ternary) system ABC. Note that composition is measured along the. given temperature by means of the lcvcr rule. For two phases in equilibriulll in a ternary system the relation, is the appropriate gcncralized lever rule expression. Liquidus plot for hypothetical ternary phase diagram. adapted from ref lever rule cannot be used here, it can be assumed that moving closer to an .. These relationships are clearly evident in the isotherms of Fig.

It must be noted that geometrical methods will not predict the exact path of equilibrium crystallization in systems of this type. We here give an approximate path consistent with experimental results. As the liquid is cooled, it moves along the curved path D-P, while continually reacting with the previously precipitated plagioclase to form a more albitic plagioclase.

We now construct what is known as a three phase triangle. It is shown in the figure by the straight line connecting the three phases in equilibrium, Di solidliquid point M and plagioclase solid solution Point S. With continued cooling, the liquid composition changes along the boundary curve towards pure albite. Meanwhile the plagioclase solid solution is continually made over to more albitic compositions. Crystallization ceases when the base of the three phase triangle intersects the original liquid composition, D.

Phase Diagrams: Ternary Systems - Chemistry LibreTexts

Such a three phase triangle with apices Di, I, F, is shown in the figure. Crystallization of composition P will be similar to that of D. Note, however that the liquid composition will follow a different path and intersect the boundary curve at point L. The liquid composition will then change along the boundary curve until the base of the three phase triangle Di, H, G, intersects the initial composition P.

lever rule ternary relationship

We now consider what would happen if the solid material were removed somehow, and prevented from reacting with the liquid. This is the case of fractional crystallization. Suppose we start again with composition D and cool it to a point where the liquid has the composition P.

Describe the resulting mixture as follows: Find the final mixture composition, and show the overall composition on the diagram, Indicate whether the final mixture is one phase or two phase at specified T and P, If the mixture is two phase, specify the composition and amount of each phase. Example a Ternary Diagram, b Chemicals To Be Mixed Solution For the first step we should determine the mass of each components A,B, and C in each vessel using the composition and mass of the chemicals.

lever rule ternary relationship

Composition Calculation, Example To find the composition of the final mixture, mass of each component should be divided by total mass: Liquid Vapour Phase Diagram for Example The composition of the final mixture located in the two phase region of the diagram. To find the amount of each phase using the lever law: This injected fluid alters thermodynamic properties of the reservoir fluid by changing the chemical composition of the reservoir fluid.

Rigorous thermodynamic analysis needs identification of all chemical constitutes and their composition. But it is not practical.

Ternary phase diagrams

The experiences have shown that complex hydrocarbon systems can be represented with groups of hydrocarbons that preserve many of the important properties of the system. The first component represents a volatile pseudo component and most of the times contains C1, N2, CO2, The second pseudocomponent is a mixture of intermediate hydrocarbon components such as C2 through C6, sometimes CO2 is grouped in this group.

An important assumption in using pseudocomponents and a pseudoternary diagram is that the composition of the pseudocomponents does not change in the different phases. Tie lines length shrinks toward the critical plait point where the properties of two phases are indistinguishable.

Ternary Phase Diagram Basics (Interactive Simulation)

In the limit of zero mole fraction of ethanol, the tie line falls along the horizontal base of the triangle and displays a miscibility gap for the binary system of benzene and water. The conjugate phases are very nearly pure benzene and pure water. The plait point shown as an open circle in the figure is also called a critical solution point. As the system point approaches the plait point from within the two-phase area, the length of the tie line through the system point approaches zero, the miscibility gap disappears, and the compositions of the two conjugate liquid phases become identical.

Ternary phase diagrams -

Suppose we have the binary system of benzene and water represented by point a. Two liquid phases are present: If we gradually stir ethanol into this system, the system point moves along the dotted line from point a toward the vertex for pure ethanol, but can never quite reach the vertex.

At point b, there are still two phases, and we can consider the ethanol to have distributed itself between two partially-miscible solvents, benzene and water Sec.

lever rule ternary relationship

From the position of point b relative to the ends of the tie line passing through point b, we see that the mole fraction of ethanol is greater in the water-rich phase.

As we continue to add ethanol, the amount of the water-rich phase increases and the amount of the benzene-rich phase decreases, until at point c the benzene-rich phase completely disappears. The added ethanol has increased the mutual solubilities of benzene and water and resulted in a single liquid phase. The dashed lines are tie lines in the two-phase areas.

The phase diagram in Fig.