available to readers and viewers of the news media and how that information stereotypes, racial micro-aggressions and perceptions of African American males . .. [we] found a relationship between the prior exposure to information, often. News, entertainment, and social media shape how we behave toward different American race relations by repeatedly broadcasting images of black people who The first step is to recognize negative stereotypes in the media when you see. In parliament, spokespersons of the two main coalition-parties raised the subject of expelling the imam from the Netherlands, and rethinking the relationship.
After that, you rate that issue high on your own agenda as well. Peter van Rooden observes. The national law permitting gay marriages had just been passed in the Netherlands mere months ago. The new legislation was perceived by many as a landmark for progressive Dutch society, evidence showing how far they as a people have come.
All the journalists we interviewed attempted to address the variations of Islam within the Netherlands. However, due to that same diversity among Muslims, finding a relevant spokesperson presents a challenge for the journalist as well as the politician.
Although the pillarized society, which was heavily divided along religious lines, was dismantled two decades ago, its influences remain in many aspects of Dutch life. Islam in this sense poses an amplified threat, by virtue of its nature as a religious faith.
This may also have an effect on how the media define related topics. Now it is o. Because of the inability to name groups that required more attention, the minority problems risked being excluded from debates on social issues.
Political correctness in the first place is used to avoid stereotypes. But I think political incorrectness is going to far. The media takes every opportunity to be the one to tell the truth about minorities The standards for political correctness in the media are changing, although the extent of this development has not yet been agreed upon.
The uncertainty as to what can and cannot be said elevates the hypersensitivity of politicians, journalists and the public towards specific words and claims. In their attempts to define these disputed issues, the instinctive reliance on dividing problems along religious and cultural lines can possibly be traced to the high regard for the influence of religion in Dutch society, as well sentiments of self-preservation from a faith of which not much is known. People say, see, that newspapers or government are not defending our rights to walk on the streets without being afraid of danger.
The problem with the press is they have no memory: How to minimize the impact of negative stereotypes It is clear that seeing groups presented in a positive way is important for improving intergroup attitudes—and, clearly, if journalists and media-makers want to have a positive impact on society, they should think carefully about how they portray minorities.
The first step is to recognize negative stereotypes in the media when you see them, label them as stereotypes, and resist their influence on how you respond to the group. There is some evidence that actively challenging stereotypic responses when they occur is an important tool in combating our explicit and implicit prejudices.
Moreover, you can deliberately expose yourself to more diverse representations of other groups. Studies have found that people who have had more social interaction with minority group members are less likely to be affected by negative media depictions of these groups.
This may be explained by the fact that they have more varied representations of what members of this groups are like, and therefore do not allow a single, negative representation to shape how they treat people from that group.
Even if you are not able to do this by directly interacting with minority group members, you can consume media with counter-stereotypical depictions of these groups. Doing this repeatedly over time may reduce the extent to which you rely on stereotypes to shape your attitudes and behavior toward these groups, similar to the way direct social interaction does. We can use these same strategies with our children in order to minimize the negative impact of stereotypes. First, we need to explain to our children what stereotypes are and why they are harmful.5 Gender Stereotypes That Stop You from Being Happy
When you consume media with your child, you can point out stereotypes when you see them and explain to your child why that stereotype is not representative of the group. These issues of stereotyping and polarization in reporting are further exacerbated in the context of Dutch tolerance, where crime, poverty, security, immigration and culture can be painted in black or white, rather than in nuance. By far, mass media is incredibly instrumental in shaping the conversation and culture in society, and because of this it serves as a powerful outlet of information.
With the increasing multicultural society in the Netherlands, this article aims to explore Dutch media and its portrayal of ethnic minorities. This article also explores the question of accountability and transparency in mass media in reporting sensitive issues that may intentionally or unintentionally create stereotypes. In the past decades, cultural diversity in employment and visibility in the media have been given considerable encouragement, but still ethnic minorities in Dutch society feel that they are not fairly represented in mainstream media.
The study showed that the majority of journalists are male, white and on average 42 years old, and have worked in the media for about 17 years Ouaj, Muslims especially have turned towards global media to watch unfiltered breaking news in the Middle East such as the popular Arab news channel Al Jazeera. The study discussed the relationship between the media and migrants on the basis of existing literature and general insights with the main topics focusing on the role of TV reporting, the attitude of journalists, media recruitment policies and the portrayal of Muslims ERCOMER, Such topics like culture, education, religion and entertainment were rarely mentioned alongside racism or anti-racism.
Just by looking at themes of television programs about ethnic minorities, the common topics of discussion and debate include: Although racism and anti-racism were important issues, racism was largely reported in relation to right-wing extremism and racist violence, while anti-racism reports were mostly related to mass mobilization, protest meetings and demonstrations. This goes to show that the mainstream media produces news and stories that are indeed polarizing and overly simplified to the public.
This oversimplification of stories, conflicts and culture in the mainstream media presents a narrow view of ethnic minorities, especially Muslims, and alienates an increasingly culturally diverse population in the Netherlands. It has become a norm to see ethnic minorities associated with issues of immigration, crime, poverty, asylum and displacement and global security, but what exactly happened to create the media furor we see today when it comes to ethnic minorities in the Netherlands?
The Twin Towers The terrorist attacks of September 11,are the tipping point in the way Muslims were portrayed in the media. Before the terrorist attacks, Muslims and Islam were not perceived as a threat to society, but after the bombing of the Twin Towers in New York, the cultural beliefs, practices and traditions of Muslims were constantly questioned.
In the case of the Netherlands, this was especially so for people of Moroccan and Turkish descent. The fear of terrorism was directly related to Islam and Muslims, which caused for a wave of negative and stereotyping reports of Muslims. In the Dutch media practices, Muslims were constantly questioned and criticized, whereby the practice of wearing headscarves was considered as the oppression of women, which caused for a new wave of stereotyping and oversimplification in media whereby Islam was perceived as a misogynistic religion.
The generalization and stigmatization of Muslims caused for social unrest and division in society, whereby Muslims were constantly confronted about cultural and religious aspects, which often were incorrectly interrelated and caused for even more confusion within the multicultural society.
Fortuyn and Van Gogh The murders of politician Pim Fortuyn in and film director Theo van Gogh in shocked the nation and stirred up the debate about Islam. He was labeled as a far-right populist by his opponents and the media. It was a turning point of the political landscape in the Netherland, in which populism took on the overhand and harshened language used by politicians with regard to Muslims and Islam.
Hype and Stereotype: The Role of the Media in Shaping Public Discourse on Minorities
The media picked up this development in the political landscape, which led to an increase of reporters framing Moroccans or Islam primarily negatively, such that the linking of Moroccans youths with extremism and radicalization, whereby these youngsters were portrayed as a threat for the Dutch society.
InFortuyn was assassinated by Volkert van der Graaf, who was known as a vegan animal rights campaigner. Theo van Gogh was a public figure in the Netherland who was a film producer, a film director, columnist and an actor.
Hirsi Ali and Van Gogh collaborated in the making of the short film Submissionin which the position of women in Islam was questioned and criticized.
The making of this film caused for commotion in the public debate about Islam and raised resistance within the Muslim community in the Netherlands, because the film was perceived as overall stereotyping and negative frame-working of the Islam as misogynistic.
Whereby, gender and sexual politics were important topics in his view on practices of immigrants. Some described Van Gogh as a freedom writer while others found him extreme in his statements about Muslims and the Islam.
Whatever viewpoint one takes, it cannot be denied that Van Gogh did change the atmosphere of the public debate with regard to immigration, integration and Islam in the Netherlands. The polarization of the society, whereby Islam was perceived as a threat, caused for a wave of negative, stereotyping associations in the media.
Muslims were being portrayed as extremist, which caused a one-sided and biased stereotyping perspective and an overall negative framework.
How to Avoid Picking Up Prejudice from the Media
Politician Geert Wilders, who is a populist politician and founder of the Partij voor de Vrijheid, picked up on the agitation with regard to Islam and Moroccans in society and played a tremendous role in continuing the portrayal of Islam as a danger for the Dutch traditions, culture and identity.
He used the political and social unrest with regard to Islam for his political agenda, in which Islam is perceived as a religion that has no enrichment for the Netherlands and that immigrants from Islamic countries should be banned. His statements and vision about Islam, Muslims and Moroccans caused for further division in the multicultural society. There have been many objections on the discourse of the public debate — with regard to Islam and the way that Muslims were portrayed in the media.
The oversimplification of Muslims in the media and no representation or development of inclusion in order to combat the negative stereotyping of Muslims is causing a distorted view of Muslims and Islam in the multicultural society and is still dominantly present in the Dutch media. Black Pete and Tradition In the Netherlands, Saint Nicholas is a very old tradition that is annually celebrated on the 5th of December.
The tradition of Saint Nicholas is often perceived as the core to Dutch national folklore. Every year, Saint Nicholas makes his entry accompanied by black-faced helpers: Since the discussion about Black Pete has got more intense and opened up to a broader public. The Black Pete debate did not stay unnoticed in the international community.
Public figures such as Anouk Teeuwe, who is a famous singer, stated on Facebook and Twitter that she is very much ashamed of the Black Pete tradition in the Netherlands and that it should change. De Telegraaf, one of the most read newspapers in the Netherlands, went even one step further and made a very distasteful comparison between Black Pete and Nelson Mandela, whereby it was stated that with the death of Mandela on the 5th of December,Black Pete also had passed away.
How can it be possible that a symbolic person such as Mandela — who changed history, and who has done so much to combat Apartheid in South Africa and had such an important role as an advocate for various social and human rights organizations — be linked to Black Pete?
It can be questioned that if the Black Pete tradition really has nothing to do with racism or discrimination, how come that so many racist arguments are being stated in the Dutch media with the discourse of this public debate?
Up to now most politicians in the Netherlands remained silent with regard to the debate of Back Pete, which caused for a lot of frustration among the Black Pete protesters. Because politicians neglect to recognize the arguments of Black Pete opponents, there is this feeling as if their worries are not being considered as a priority in the course this public debate. At the moment, the discussion with regard to the features of Black Pete is still continuing. There is a pending court case about the characteristics of Black Pete and whether it is a racist element of the Saint Nicholas tradition.
On July in Amsterdam, a judge — in a first instance — stated that Black Pete is a negative stereotype. The city of Amsterdam went in appeal; at the moment no further outcomes are presented with regard to the features of Black Pete, and the public debate is still in progress. The media still reports frequently about the developments around Black Pete, because it has such an important impact on the Dutch Saint Nicholas tradition, of which Black Pete seemingly is considered as an indispensable element.
The latter can be argued since that traditions and cultural elements are never static but dynamic — especially within a multicultural society, and that should be taken in consideration as well.
Therefore, as stated in The Economist it cannot be denied that, if the tradition of Black Pete was perceive as not racist by Black Pete defenders before, the discourse of this public debate has been the tipping point for the linkage of racism and Black Pete now.
Inclusion and Diversity in the Media The term tolerance has become misleading.