Relations Between Native Americans and European Settlers by Natalie Sarcona on Prezi
In the earliest days of New World settlement, relations between the natives and the Large numbers of Native Americans died from European diseases such as . Free Essay: The Relations between Native Americans and Colonists There are many reasons Native Americans and European Colonists did. Thomas G. Alexander Utah, The Right Place. As the Saints colonized and implanted the region with Euro-American social and cultural traditions, they also .
It is within the context of the native view that land was to be held in common that one must understand the business arrangements between European settlers and the natives. Often the natives had no understanding of what it meant to sell land to the settlers.
At first, the natives blithely "sold" tribal lands in small and large tracts, believing that "ownership" would not exclude them from using the land. They realized only later that what the Europeans were doing was rapidly acquiring exclusive private use of virtually all the tribal lands in New England and subjecting natives on these lands to the laws of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
One instance that reveals the conflict that arose because of the differing views of land ownership centered on the area of Dedham, Massachusetts, which European capitalists had acquired from the natives. The owners of the land actually lived hundreds of miles away-not on the land they owned in Dedham. Seeing no activity on the land, the natives believed they were free to hunt, trap, fish, build houses, and cultivate gardens there.
This attitude was not far removed from that of the philosopher John Locke, who so strongly influenced the thinking of the fathers of the American Revolution. He wrote that one could own the land only with which one mixed one's labor and could actually use.
[Indian] Relationships With The Europeans
But the colonists were amassing great estates on which they might eventually establish business enterprises, and they strongly objected to the presence of the natives on land that they now owned. Similar quarrels began to occur throughout the colonies, leading to armed hostilities. There were many conflicts between settlers and natives throughout the colonial period. One of the first major conflicts occurred in The New England colonies raised a militia and waged war against the Pequot for a solid year.
On June 5,a militia destroyed a large Pequot village at Stonington, Connecticut, and a little over a month later a military force made up of soldiers from three New England colonies tracked down the survivors of the Stonington village at a place near New Haven and slaughtered all they could find.
Other Pequot men and boys who were eventually captured were sold into slavery in the West Indies.
American Indians at European Contact
The women and girls became slaves to white settlers in New England. With their numbers decimated, their main villages burned, their stored food and supplies stolen, the few Survivors in this tribe left for the west.
This was the end of the entire tribe's presence in New England. Although for forty years after this incident, there was no open warfare between settlers and natives, relations between them were hardly cordial. Individuals from both camps were guilty of murders and thefts, and the English continued to gobble up land.
Land disputes continued, the one at Dedham in and being one of the most prominent. There were also quarrels with the Narraganset in Rhode Island where Massachusetts Bay businessmen, under the Atherton Company, began commandeering immense amounts of Indian land. In this case, the European settlers of Rhode Island sided with the natives against the settlers of Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut.
After the embittered Narragansett caused property damage near some Connecticut plantations, the New England Confederation demanded that the natives either pay a fine, which was too large for them to meet, or forfeit all their lands to the business corporation. Immediate disaster was averted when the king of England, Charles II, intervened at Rhode Island's request to side with the Narraganset and voided the claims of the Atherton Company.
Still, the company tried to ignore the king's dictate and continued appropriating Narraganset land.
Throughout the s and s, the General Courts of the Massachusetts Bay or Plymouth Colony made a habit of hauling tribal sachems before them to quiz them on rumors of conspiracies or allegiances with tribes or nationals that the bay considered unfriendly. Once these hearings were over, the court would present the defendant with a bill for court costs, as it did the Wampanoag chief, King Philip, in The reason for the disintegration of relations and the buildup of hostilities was simple: King Philip had historically been friendly with the settlers, but suspicions mounted, rumors raged on, and the English demanded that various tribes surrender their weapons.
The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction
For four years, King Philip and other sachems inwardly seethed over the humiliation. Finally, in Juneafter Plymouth Colony's execution of three of King Philip's men for the murder of an informant, the Indian chief began his raids on settlements in a year-long war in which many native tribes sided with the settlers.
Some fifty towns along the frontier were burned. Bythe English had lost about 2, people, and the natives had lost about 4, in battle. With the decisive defeat of King Philip's forces in King Philip himself was killed, drawn and quartered, and his head brought to Boston for display came the virtual end of the native tribes in New England. All Indian land was now up for confiscation as the settlers dictated the terms for takeovers and appropriated Indian land as the spoils of war.
Native North Americans - The National Archives
Prisoners of war were executed by the scores, most without trial and many of whom had been friendly to the settlers. Immediately, however, New England businessmen realized the cash value of the prisoners, so many more were sold into slavery and shipped to the West Indies, Spain, and the Mediterranean.
Those deemed less dangerous became bound servants in the colonies to alleviate the perpetual labor shortage. Natives, who fifty years earlier had called the whole New England area their home, to be held in common with their brothers, were restricted to reservations.
They soon encountered starvation and famine, despite stealing food from the Native Americans. Thousands of Native Americans were also killed, either in fighting or by outbreaks of European diseases to which their bodies had no immunity. Those settlers that survived, together with new arrivals, began to cultivate the land, growing tobacco.
As more settlers arrived, more Native American hunting grounds were taken, and the Native Americans began to fight back. Any chance of peaceful relations were at an end. Teachers' notes This lesson asks pupils to investigate the early contact between Europeans and Native Americans. Using primary source diary extracts, pupils are able to understand and appreciate the first encounters between European settlers and the indigenous people of North America.
Pupils are asked to explore both positive and negative aspects of these encounters, which can then be developed further in a number of ways. This is a contemporary map engraved by William Hole based on descriptions by the discoverer of Virginia, Captain John Smith. The map uses a mix of English and Native place names.
These are extracts from the diaries of one of the Virginia settlers, possibly Captain Gabriel Archer, and show the life of the settlers as well as their interaction with the native Americans. The lesson could form a background to the teaching of the History Scheme of Work Unit What were the effects of Tudor exploration?Native America before European Colonization