Essentially, the trends in Nigeria's foreign policy indicating its national interest have not members of NGOs. It is even more difficult to define the national interest of Nigeria. is attributable to the fact that foreign policy. To ascertain the effect of Nigeria's Foreign Policy on her global image in the its national interests and to achieve.
The generally acceptable view is that national interest is a manifestation of the core values, objectives and philosophy underlying the actions of the leaders. The concept is a corporate one or describes as a corporate entity in the sense that it refers not to be interest of its individual but to that of the people. It is argued that the National Interest is the interest of the people not of the state, where the state is seen to exist in order to promote and protect the welfare of the citizens.
A nation cannot play a super power role outside when her citizens are plagued by insecurity, inflationary pressure, high unemployment and economic instability. It is even more difficult to define the national interest of Nigeria. Some foreign policy expectorates believe that Nigeria has no clear-cut political ideology and national interest. It may interest you to know that Nigeria is one of the six greatest oil producers in OPEC, but the State of the domestic economy and prevailing social conditions are not desirable.
Nigeria is characterized by mass poverty, grave insecurity, dilapidated economic and social infrastructure, which has triggered the forces of corruption and marginalization ethnicity. The big question is, why would Nigeria still adopt a foreign policy principle that is restricted within the confines of Africa in this era of globalization?
There are very strong indications that Nigeria has not adequately funded her foreign missions. The leadership appears not to have a defined role for her Diaspora citizens in terms of their participation in the economic, scientific and technological development of the nation. Invariable, the Diaspora intelligentsia has no role to play because the Nigerian leadership has not taken any step to curtail the tide of brain drain of the critical segment of the populace.
Some of those challenges include leadership crisis, corruption, insurgency and terrorism amongst others. It was therefore recommended that major reorganization of the Foreign Service such that positions of the Ambassadors and other key positions will no longer be politicized and the government should integrate professional international public relations practitioners in its interaction with the international community in order to effectively boost the global image of the nation.
While some of the goals can be attained by the States on their own, others can only be attained with the cooperation or active support of other similar entities beyond their borders. All decisions in form of actions or reactions, dealing with such matters requiring cooperation or active support of others across the borders of a given State for their attainment, fall within the ambient of foreign policy.
Thus foreign policy is authoritative actions taken by governments or those governments are committed to take in order to either maintain the desirable aspects of the international environment or to amend its undesirable aspects. Also, Hoisti in Obi defines foreign policy as the action of a state towards the external environment and the conditions usually domestic under which these actions are formulated [ 1 ].
This invariably means that foreign policy is the category of actions a government takes to deals with defence, security, international political relations and international economic relations. As a necessarily calculated and goal-oriented activity, foreign policy is purposive. This purpose is altering or creating a condition outside the sovereign boundaries to gain national advantage, usually defined in terms of national interest.
National image both at home and abroad is an ethical issue. It may appear intangible but the benefits and advantages flowing from a good image are inestimably unquantifiable.
In any country, when foreign policy initiatives are well focused, can help create and reinforce favourable images of a country to the external world. Consequently, the image a country attempts to create and project, through its foreign policy, must conform to its national interests, and the expectations of other members of the international community. In other words, foreign policy objectives and national interests must be systematically packaged and projected to achieve their aims.
Image building is one of the most essential responsibilities of public relations practitioners. This invariably means that public relations is concerned with how and what others thing about you either as a person or an organisation.
These images or views are either favourable or unfavourable. Hence, the effort of public relations is to change negative image to positive perception. A country's standing in the international system although dependent on some other factors, is highly dependent on the perception of her image globally. Nigeria's image has been shaped by a number of factors since These factors include Nigeria's Afrocentric policy, Nigeria's big market for Euro-American finished products, Nigeria's oil boom, Nigeria's anti-apartheid policy, Nigeria's policy of technical assistance, and several other factors that evolved over the years [ 3 ].
It has become very obvious that crime and corruption is the bane of Nigeria's development. The current Boko Haram insurgency in the North-Eastern part of the country speaks volume. Internationally, the pervasive corruption in Nigeria has tarnished the image of the country and has resulted in foreign nationals exercising extreme caution in entering into business transactions with Nigerians, thereby weakening the economic sector.
President Good luck Jonathan following his victory in the elections, before the anxious days in office, directed presidential advisory council on international relations PACIR to coordinate the reforming of Nigeria's foreign policy to be investment oriented. Coupled with his interactive forum with Nigerians abroad during his foreign visits, the president asked the nation's foreign policy experts, seasoned diplomats, professionals and intelligentsia to chart a new way for the future without discarding the past.
Nigeria's foreign policy under President Goodluck Jonathan's administration focused on the following: Statement of problem The goal of every foreign policy is to establish and maintain a cordial relationship with other nations as well as to build a good image for a nation and meet its national or domestic interest.
This invariably means that foreign policy is important in formulating, maintaining and sustaining a nation's good image. The Jonathan administration, like many other administrations in Nigeria has never lacked good foreign policies. The problem of Nigeria's foreign policy that is affecting the country's image is not in formulation, but in implementation [ 4 ]. In response to this, the research work therefore aims at investigating the effect of Nigerian foreign policy on its global image among the comity of nations during President Goodluck Jonathan's administration from The research will also find out the extent of implementation of the foreign policy issues that President Jonathan focused on to implement.
Objective of the study This research work aims to: Scope of the study Foreign policies have been made by different government that has ruled the Nation Nigeria one way or the other.
The scope of this study is to narrow the foreign policies made down to President Goodluck Jonathan's administration and the effect such policies have had on the global image of Nigeria. This research work will therefore contain a critical assessment of President Goodluck Jonathan administration's foreign policies as well as its effect on Nigeria's image globally. Literature Review Concept of foreign policy There is no generally agreed definition of foreign policy; hence different scholars have attempted to define the concept from their own perspectives.
Modelski in Obi defines foreign policy as the system of activities evolved by communities for changing the behaviour of other states and for adjusting their own activities to the international environment.
Similarly, Frankel in Obi defines foreign policy as consisting of decisions and actions that involve some appreciable extent relationship between one state and another [ 1 ]. A country's foreign policy consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve its goals within the international relations milieu.
The approaches used are strategically employed to interact with other countries. For countries to relate effectively with one another, foreign policy must be well defined, well thought out, and must possess direction. Hence, Adeniran in Wogu infers that foreign policy can best be understood through an explanation of what it actually is [ 5 ].
Foreign policy, according to him consists of three elements. One is the overall orientation and policy intentions of a particular country toward another. The second element is the objective that a country seeks to achieve in her relations or dealings with other countries.
The third element of foreign policy is the means for achieving that particular goal or objectives.
In recent times however, due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, relations and interactions have been known to exist between state and non- state actors in the international political arena. These relations in their own way have influenced several foreign policies between nation states.
The foreign policy of any nation is the external projection of some of the domestic policies of that country that may have relevance in such arena. Both domestic and foreign policies of a country are interrelated, or perhaps more accurately stated, are more inter-penetrated. It is thus appropriately defined as: That response may be friendly or aggressive, causal or intense, simple or complex, but it is always there.
Some countries can at different times be friends or enemies or valued allies, with a relatively long or short period of time. But the relationship was restored at the end of the war.Nigeria's Role in Africa and the World
Besides, the policy of non-recognition of the apartheid regime of South Africa by Nigeria changed with the installation of a black majority rule by the African National Congress ANC country. The point to keep in mind is that whatever forms it takes; some response to the outside world is always there.
In effect, every country must have a foreign policy in order to live and survive as an independent body in the complex, sometime dangerous, world we live in today. Essentially therefore, countries all over the world design and implement foreign policies in order to guide their external relations as well as protect, promote and defend their vital national interests.
This could be in areas like defence of territorial integrity, the promotion of economic, military, strategic and diplomatic interests and whatever a country might consider as its vital national interest. Section 19 of and constitution of the Federal Republic had gone further to set the foreign policy objectives of the Nigerian state thus: The foreign policy shall be: Thus the Foreign Policies under Goodluck Jonathan's administration were deduced from the above and they include: Components of foreign policy According to Obi Foreign policy is a product of many factors and forces [ 1 ].
Some of these factors and forces are natural, while some are man-made. Also while some are permanent others are temporary. It is the sum total of these that are referred to as components of foreign policy. Rodee in Obi states that in devising foreign policy, a nation must consider certain basic facts of its existence [ 1 ].
The frame of reference includes its geographical situation, population potential, economic endowment and ideological environment. Brecher in Obi summed the components as geography, external and global environment, personalities, economic and military position and public opinion as the major components of foreign policy.
Nigeria’s concept of national interest
Rosenau in Obi differs a bit in his own components [ 1 ]. He listed size, geography, economic development, culture and history, great power structure alliances, technology, social structure, moods of opinion, political accountability, governmental structure, and situational factors both external and internal. The geographical characteristics of size, topography, shape and climate are important factors. A state with a sizeable territory, good climate, natural defence boundaries, arable land for food production and a shape which is compact and easier to defend is seen as possessing the necessary power potential that enables a state to prosecute independent foreign policy.
Also, the geographical location of a country, to a very large extent determines its defence policies. Countries that have aggressive and troublesome neighbors must have a policy based on how to contain them, either through arm build-up or through military alliances. The military strength of a nation to a large extent influences its foreign policy.
Countries that are militarily strong often adopt aggressive postures on issues they feel strongly about. This is because they back their tough stance with actions. Morganthau in Obi states that the dynamic force which moulds international relations is to be found in the states drive for power. Power is also a means for serving national interest. Nations that are militarily strong, most often believe that in international politics, might is right.
All their policies are framed in such a way that when persuasion fails, power comes in handy to help them actualize their goals. In defining foreign policy, Karl Deutsch in Obi included the pursuit and protection of a country's economic interest.
Nigeria’s concept of national interest – Blueprint
This goes to show the importance of economic consideration in foreign policy. Nations necessity to engage in trade with other nations in other to sell what they have in abundance and buy what they need and do not have at all or sufficiently reflects their economic interest.
The ability of every state to pursue its foreign policy successfully also depends on its economic position. Developed countries because of their developed economy have been able to pursue their foreign policy with much success. Foreign policies like domestic policies are product of various processes. The elite who make these policies are human beings, who have their individual preferences, world views and emotions.
The decisions which they make to a large extent reflect their personality. Frankel in Obi states that policy choices flow inexorably from the composite images of competing elites within the political system.