Lexical similarity - Wikipedia
French is the mother tongue of about million Canadians according to Canadian French - English Dictionary · Census: Language · Office québécois de la langue française · Grand dictionnaire. French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin .. Today, French and English are secondary languages of Lebanon, with about 40% of . During the 17th century, French replaced Latin as the most important language of diplomacy and international relations (lingua franca). France has one official language, the French language. The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals, but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications. In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the . and related technical documentation to its employees in.
However, in sweeping away the old provinces, parlements and laws, the Revolution strengthened the unified system of administration across the state. At first, the revolutionaries declared liberty of language for all citizens of the Republic; this policy was subsequently abandoned in favour of the imposition of a common language which was to do away with the other languages of France. Other languages were seen as keeping the peasant masses in obscurantism.
The new idea was expounded in the Report on the necessity and means to annihilate the patois and to universalise the use of the French language. The lack of ability of the population to understand the language in which were the political debates and the administrative documents was then seen as antidemocratic. The report resulted the same year in two laws which stated that the only language tolerated in France in public life and in schools would be French.
Within two years, the French language had become the symbol of the national unity of the French State.
The History of English - English as a Global Language
However, the Revolutionaries lacked both time and money to implement a language policy. Third Republic[ edit ] In the s, the Third Republic sought to modernize France, and in particular to increase literacy and general knowledge in the population, especially the rural population, and established free compulsory primary education.
The choice of French for education seemed natural, given that it was the only language widely spoken in France in which a sizable number of newspapers and historical, scientific etc.
By the 12th century Middle English was fully developed, integrating both Norse and Norman features; it continued to be spoken until the transition to early Modern English around In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer.
Early Modern English Main article: Early Modern English Graphic representation of the Great Vowel Shiftshowing how the pronunciation of the long vowels gradually shifted, with the high vowels i: Early Modern English was characterised by the Great Vowel Shift —inflectional simplification, and linguistic standardisation.
It was a chain shiftmeaning that each shift triggered a subsequent shift in the vowel system.
Mid and open vowels were raisedand close vowels were broken into diphthongs. For example, the word bite was originally pronounced as the word beet is today, and the second vowel in the word about was pronounced as the word boot is today.
The Great Vowel Shift explains many irregularities in spelling since English retains many spellings from Middle English, and it also explains why English vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages. Aroundthe Court of Chancery in Westminster began using English in its official documentsand a new standard form of Middle English, known as Chancery Standarddeveloped from the dialects of London and the East Midlands.
InWilliam Caxton introduced the printing press to England and began publishing the first printed books in London, expanding the influence of this form of English. Even after the vowel shift the language still sounded different from Modern English: Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English.
The Foxes haue holes and the birds of the ayre haue nests  This exemplifies the loss of case and its effects on sentence structure replacement with Subject-Verb-Object word order, and the use of of instead of the non-possessive genitiveand the introduction of loanwords from French ayre and word replacements bird originally meaning "nestling" had replaced OE fugol.
Spread of Modern English By the late 18th century, the British Empire had facilitated the spread of English through its colonies and geopolitical dominance.
Commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to English becoming the first truly global language. English also facilitated worldwide international communication. In the post-colonial period, some of the newly created nations that had multiple indigenous languages opted to continue using English as the official language to avoid the political difficulties inherent in promoting any one indigenous language above the others.
In Samuel Johnson published his A Dictionary of the English Language which introduced a standard set of spelling conventions and usage norms.
Foreign language influences in English - Wikipedia
InNoah Webster published the American Dictionary of the English language in an effort to establish a norm for speaking and writing American English that was independent from the British standard. Within Britain, non-standard or lower class dialect features were increasingly stigmatised, leading to the quick spread of the prestige varieties among the middle classes. Earlier English did not use the word "do" as a general auxiliary as Modern English does; at first it was only used in question constructions where it was not obligatory.