Criminological research has emphasized the strong relationship between age and crime, with involvement in most crimes peaking in adolescence and then. Deviance is any behavior that violates social norms, and is usually of sufficient The sociological discipline that deals with crime (behavior that violates laws) is does what it claims to do: It discusses the relationships between socialization. The relationship between deviance and crime is best described as follows: Crime is a subset of deviance – all criminal acts are also deviant, but some deviant.
For instance, in some countries prostitution is illegal and also deviant in the societies. The law can thus take its course.
Where the behavior is solely considered deviant, society leaders can put pressure on the perpetrator as a control of deviant behaviors but have no coercive power to punish.
Examples of deviance behaviors include prostitution, walking in the streets naked, house breaking, cross-dressing, transsexual, transgender, and many more depending on the society or the region where one resides.
In a nudist environment, for example, it may be acceptable to walk on the streets nude, and may be seen as a strange attire if you walk with suits in that environment.
Another example goes to countries in Africa where female genital mutilation is acceptable for circumcision where in America it may be considered as deviant. Definition of Crime Crime is an act of contravening the statues enacted by legislations after lengthy debates on what constitutes a criminal offense and what penalties to institute for certain crimes.
The sociological discipline that concerns itself with criminal studies is termed criminology. The study can also cover the concepts of deviance that overlaps with criminal offenses. It is relatively difficult to discern criminal studies from deviance studies Bader et al.
Criminal laws are documented in constitutions of societies and anyone found contravening them shall be liable to a fine, imprisonment or death penalty in some countries such as Botswana.
Crime, Law and Deviance
In a nutshell, criminal offenses can be categorized into personal offenses and property offenses. Other categories include victimless crimes where there are no obvious complainants, organized crimes committed by organized groups in illegal dealings under legitimate enterprises, and white-collar crimes that are committed by individuals possessing a high social status.
Victimless crimes may include prostitution and drug dealings, whereas white-collar crimes may include tax frauds, and organized crimes may include the shipment of illegal products. Once the criminal contraventions have been documented, police and the justice system will be mandated to enforce them using their coercive power.
The courts will determine the amount of penalty or punishment to issue to a perpetrator. There are two main intellectual barriers to merging criminology with studies of deviance.
Deviance - Relationship Between Deviance And Crime
First, some criminal behavior in some places such as gambling is not deviant, at least by most definitions of deviance, so would be subject to criminological study but not to study by students of deviance. The political processes that produce laws can result in behaviors being declared illegal although the conduct is not deviant by any definition except a legalistic one.
How those political processes unfold and how enforcement might fare when illegality does not match social reality are of great importance to some criminologists. In addition, some behaviors are deviant at the time they become illegal but later become non-deviant without the law having been changed.
Theories of Deviance
Therefore, those intellectually opposed to merger might note that subsuming criminology under deviance studies would exclude some of the more interesting aspects of criminology. A second intellectual obstacle to conceiving of crime and deviance as one subject matter hinges on disagreements about the nature of human behavior. Some criminologists and some students of deviance contend that all forms of behavior, including specific acts or types of crime or deviance, are more or less distinct, requiring unique explanations.
By observing a plethora of differences, such as whether committed by males or females, blacks or whites, young or old, in some circumstances rather than others, whether legal or not, whether regarded as especially serious or not, whether violent or simply immoral, whether committed with planning or spontaneously, and the like, some conclude that specific behaviors have few similarities that would justify their being explained by the same theories.
What Is the Relationship Between Crime & Deviance? | Synonym
This orientation has generated a large number of explanations of specific behaviors, such as predatory crime Braithwaitecommon juvenile misdeeds Hagan,embezzlement Cresseymental illness Scheffhomicide by females Ogle et al.
Challengers, however, contend that various deviant behaviors are only superficially different because similar underlying causal processes operate in most if not all forms of deviance. They often use the analogy of focusing so closely on individual trees that the forest is overlooked. In addition, those who advocate general theory contend that it is necessary in order to achieve scientific goals of explanation and prediction based on assumptions about unity in nature; and that general theory is more parsimonious because specific accounts already overlap, often in unrecognized ways.
The generalist orientation has led to a number of theories that aim to account for wide ranges of deviance in a variety of circumstances. These general accounts usually take one of two forms. One form of general theorizing assumes a universal causal process that generates different forms of deviance under different conditions. The theories attempt to identify that causal process and specify the conditions under which it produces one form of deviance rather than another some examples are: The concept of deviance is complex because norms vary considerably across groups, times, and places.
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In other words, what one group may consider acceptable, another may consider deviant. For example, in some parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Muslim Africa, women are circumcised. In America, the thought of female circumcision, or female genital mutilation as it is known in the United States, is unthinkable; female genital mutilation, usually done in unsanitary conditions that often lead to infections, is done as a blatantly oppressive tactic to prevent women from having sexual pleasure.
A number of theories related to deviance and criminology have emerged within the past 50 years or so. Differential-association theory Edwin Sutherland coined the phrase differential association to address the issue of how people learn deviance.
According to this theory, the environment plays a major role in deciding which norms people learn to violate. Specifically, people within a particular reference group provide norms of conformity and deviance, and thus heavily influence the way other people look at the world, including how they react.
In short, people learn criminal behavior, like other behaviors, from their interactions with others, especially in intimate groups.
For example, juvenile gangs provide an environment in which young people learn to become criminals. These gangs define themselves as countercultural and glorify violence, retaliation, and crime as means to achieving social status. Gang members learn to be deviant as they embrace and conform to their gang's norms. People learn deviance from the people with whom they associate. Anomie theory Anomie refers to the confusion that arises when social norms conflict or don't even exist.