Modern vs Classical Physics | Physics Forums
of classical physics, and its relationship to 'modern physics', was not the only one of 'classical'–ancient, authoritative, perfected, and exemplary–has allowed. Mar 15, Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories. If a currently accepted theory is. The ancient greek philosophers thought a lot about motion. Aristotle accepted this difference as a fundamental principle. The Physics of Aristotle. Aristotle's physics (a synthesis of ideas from many Greek philosophers) accepted the fixity .. (before ), and we have already strayed into what is called "modern physics".
Franklin, Benjamin, Benjamin Franklin's Experiments: Harvard University Press, Including Centers of Gravity and Force of Percussion. Translated by Stillman Drake. University of Wisconsin Press, Based on the 4th ed. Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
Cohen and Anne Whitman. University of California Press, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Oxford University Press, Great Experiments in Physics. Features brief introductions to each experiment, followed by passages from the original publications. A Short History of Astronomy: From Earliest Times through the Nineteenth Century. Statistical Physics and the Atomic Theory of Matter: From Boyle and Newton to Landau and Onsager.
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Princeton University Press, The Creation of Scientific Effects: Heinrich Hertz and Electric Waves. University of Chicago Press, A detailed account for the advanced reader. The Rise of the Wave Theory of Light: An Institute for an Empire: The Physikalisch-Technische Reichanstalt, — Cambridge University Press, An exemplary study of how physical science served state interests.
Robert Mayer and the Conservation of Energy. The Evolution of Dynamics: Vibration Theory from to Detailed history for mathematically adept readers.
The Man Who Trusted Atoms. The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages. A long but valuable historiographic survey. The Birth of a New Physics. An excellent place to start for the general reader, covering the period from Copernicus to Newton. A History of the Ideas of Theoretical Physics: Essays on the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Physics.
Damerow, Peter, et al. Exploring the Limits of Preclassical Mechanics: Detailed treatments of the motion studies of Descartes, Galileo, and Beeckman. European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, — Newton and the Culture of Newtonianism. A History of Mechanics. A useful survey from ancient to modern times, concentrating on the development of theory and often using long quotations from the original sources.
Essays in History and Philosophy of Science. This is a correct approximation for objects in Earth 's gravitational field moving in air or water. Aristotle argued, in On the Heavensthat terrestrial bodies rise or fall to their "natural place" and stated as a law the correct approximation that an object's speed of fall is proportional to its weight and inversely proportional to the density of the fluid it is falling through.
In this way, Aristotle was the first to approach something similar to the law of inertia.
However, he believed a vacuum would be impossible because the surrounding air would rush in to fill it immediately. He also believed that an object would stop moving in an unnatural direction once the applied forces were removed. Later Aristotelians developed an elaborate explanation for why an arrow continues to fly through the air after it has left the bow, proposing that an arrow creates a vacuum in its wake, into which air rushes, pushing it from behind.
Aristotle's beliefs were influenced by Plato's teachings on the perfection of the circular uniform motions of the heavens. As a result, he conceived of a natural order in which the motions of the heavens were necessarily perfect, in contrast to the terrestrial world of changing elements, where individuals come to be and pass away.
Galileo would later observe "the resistance of the air exhibits itself in two ways: AlbertBishop of Halberstadtdeveloped the theory further. Modern age — formation of classical mechanics[ edit ] It wasn't until Galileo Galilei 's development of the telescope and his observations that it became clear that the heavens were not made from a perfect, unchanging substance. Adopting Copernicus 's heliocentric hypothesis, Galileo believed the Earth was the same as other planets.
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Galileo may have performed the famous experiment of dropping two cannonballs from the tower of Pisa. The theory and the practice showed that they both hit the ground at the same time.
Within a continuous streamline of fluid flow, a fluid's hydrostatic pressure will balance in contrast to its speed and elevation. Classical mechanics accurately describes the behavior of most "normal" objects. According to " The Dynamic Chemistry E-textbook " from the University of California, Davis Department of Chemistry, to be considered "normal," objects should be "larger than a molecule and smaller than a planet," close to room temperature and going at speeds significantly slower than the speed of light.
Old science with a new name Although it is the oldest branch of physics, the term "classical mechanics" is relatively new. Soon aftera series of revolutions in mathematical thinking gave birth to new fields of inquiry: The equations developed prior to were still perfectly suitable for describing objects of everyday sizes and speeds.
However, because this older branch of physics existed alongside two new ones, it needed a new name. The term "classical mechanics" was coined to loosely label the set of equations that describe reality at scales where quantum and relativistic effects are negligible. This work unified mathematical reasoning with relatively new ideas about motion here on the Earth's surface, and the most ancient of all fields of scientific inquiry: Ancient through medieval times The ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley all demonstrated an understanding of the motion of the sun, moon and stars; they could even predict the dates of eclipses by the 18th century B.
Krupp described in his book " Echoes of the Ancient Skies " Dover,"The stars and planets were often a target of worship, believed to represent their gods. Celestial mechanics thusly became the study of how things move about the heavens. The ancient Greeks were the first to consistently seek natural as opposed to supernatural explanations. A particularly tenacious set of wrong ideas centered on motion, which for nearly years built on the work of Aristotle B. This work, dubbed "the theory of impetus," would undergo major revisions in the sixth, 12th and 14th centuries A.