Timeline: India-Pakistan relations | News | Al Jazeera
The Radcliffe Line was the boundary demarcation line between the Indian and Pakistani portions of the Punjab and Bengal provinces of British India. It was. (b) Pakistan claims that the border between India and Pakistan in the Rann of at the Palais des Nations, Geneva, it was decided that the name of the The Tribunal will direct how and by whom the costs in this connection aie to. There are currently three types of Borders between India and Pakistan. 1. Working boundary: The line between state of Pakistan along Sialkot and Indian Locate almost anyone by name, email, phone number or address. . We all have made a virtual border in our heart that impedes the building of amicable relationships.
Their members of the Punjab legislature made representations to Mountbatten's chief of staff Lord Ismay as well as the Governor telling them that Gurdaspur was a "non-Muslim district".
He proposed that a Boundary Commission be set up consisting of two Muslim and two non-Muslim members recommended by the Punjab Legislative Assembly. He also proposed that a British judge of the High Court be appointed as the chairman of the Commission. In this context the Partition Plan of 3 June was announced with a notional partition showing 17 districts of Punjab in Pakistan and 12 districts in India, along with the establishment of a Boundary Commission to decide the final boundary.
In Sialkoti's view, this was done mainly to placate the Sikhs. In order to determine exactly which territories to assign to each country, in JuneBritain appointed Sir Cyril Radcliffe to chair two Boundary Commissions—one for Bengal and one for Punjab. In doing so, it will also take into account other factors. Given the deadlock between the interests of the two sides and their rancorous relationship, the final decision was essentially Radcliffe's.
After arriving in India on 8 JulyRadcliffe was given just five weeks to decide on a border. Mountbatten had accepted the post as Viceroy on the condition of an early deadline. They had no advisers to inform them of the well-established procedures and information needed to draw a boundary.
Nor was there time to gather the survey and regional information. The absence of some experts and advisers, such as the United Nations, was deliberate, to avoid delay. The relationships were so tendentious that the judges "could hardly bear to speak to each other", and the agendas so at odds that there seemed to be little point anyway. Even worse, "the wife and two children of the Sikh judge in Lahore had been murdered by Muslims in Rawalpindi a few weeks earlier.
The Punjab Border Commission was to draw a border through the middle of an area home to the Sikh community. Moreover, many insisted on their own sovereign state, something no-one else would agree to.
The Bengal Border Commission representatives were chiefly concerned with the question of who would get Calcutta. The Buddhist tribes in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bengal had no official representation and were left totally without information to prepare for their situation until two days after the partition.A history of the Kashmir conflict - The Economist
This was impossible from inception, but Radcliffe seems to have had no doubt in himself and raised no official complaint or proposal to change the circumstances. To the British and the feuding politicians alike, this neutrality was looked upon as an asset; he was considered to be unbiased toward any of the parties, except of course Britain.
Wanting to preserve the appearance of impartiality, Radcliffe also kept his distance from Viceroy Mountbatten.
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The thinking behind this justification may never be known since Radcliffe "destroyed all his papers before he left India". By his own admission, Radcliffe was heavily influenced by his lack of fitness for the Indian climate and his eagerness to depart India.
On 16 August at 5: The final Awards were ready on 9 August and 12 August, but not published until two days after the partition. According to Read and Fisher, there is some circumstantial evidence that Nehru and Patel were secretly informed of the Punjab Award's contents on August 9 or 10, either through Mountbatten or Radcliffe's Indian assistant secretary. This area consisted of two Muslim-majority tehsils with a combined population of over half a million. There were two apparent reasons for the switch: Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmirwhich is cited as further proof by the Indian government.
Timeline: India-Pakistan relations
Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India. A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 Octoberkilling 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists.
It was one of the most prominent attacks against India apart from on the Indian Parliament in December The dead bodies of the terrorists and the data recovered from them revealed that Pakistan was solely responsible for the activity.
On 13 Julyarmed men believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then fired on civilians standing nearby killing twenty-seven and injuring many more.
Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat Conference leader, was assassinated by an unidentified gunmen during a memorial rally in Srinagar. The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian occupied-forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr.
A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber. Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideenclaimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack on 29 July at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media journalists.
No Terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 Septembernear the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured. It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades".
India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in — However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations. The plane was hijacked on 24 December approximately one hour after take off and was taken to Amritsar airport and then to Lahore in Pakistan.
After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in KandaharAfghanistan. Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight.
The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir.
Pakistan Border Names - Jovago Blog
The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army. The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot. The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan.
The attack was carried out on 25 Septemberjust few days after state elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir. Two identical letters found on both the terrorists claimed that the attack was done in retaliation for the deaths of thousands of Muslims during the Gujarat riots. Though no terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attacks, Mumbai Police and RAW suspected Lashkar-e-Toiba 's hand in the twin blasts.
Before the terrorists could reach the main disputed sitethey were shot down by Indian security forces. One Hindu worshipper and two policemen were injured during the incident. This was the first major military standoff between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in The military buildup was initiated by India responding to a Indian Parliament attack and the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly attack. At least 68 people were killed, mostly Pakistani civilians but also some Indian security personnel and civilians.
The sole surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national. This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities. Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets.
They also said that, given the sophistication of the attacks, the perpetrators "must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan". India and weapons of mass destructionPakistan and weapons of mass destructionand nuclear race India has a long history of development of nuclear weapons. A number of agreements took place between and in which the borderline was determined between the two countries. The famous agreement called the Sino-Pakistan Agreement or the Sino-Pakistan Frontier Agreement, was passed in between Pakistan and China, according to which both countries agreed on the border between them.
As the border was established by Sir Cyril Radcliffe — the chairman of the Indo-Pakistan Boundary Commission — therefore it was named after him. The Pakistan-India border is almost 2, kilometres long. When discussing Indo-Pak border, Wagah is an important place for both countries. It is the only road border crossing between India and Pakistan, and lies on the Grand Trunk Road between the cities of Amritsar and Lahore.