Vitamin Bfolate interrelationships.
The relationship between vitamin B12 and folate and the effect of methionine on folate metabolism during B12 deficiency in rats is best explained by the. Oct 21, Keywords: Deficiency, folate, folic acid, metabolism, vitamin B12 . Researches show the link between folate deficiency and neural tube. Vitamin B9 also know as folic acid or folate, is abundant in leafy greens such as as part of a B-Complex supplement that contains a full spectrum of B vitamins, or nursing discuss their vitamin B9 dosage with their obstetrician/gynecologist.
These folic acid congeners are transported by receptor-mediated endocytosis across cells where they are needed to maintain normal erythropoiesis, interconvert amino acids, methylate tRNA, generate and use formate, and synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids. Using vitamin B12 as a cofactor, folic acid can normalize high homocysteine levels by remethylation of homocysteine to methionine via methionine synthetase.
Since the body becomes deficient in folic acid, all cycles will become ineffective and lead to many problems such as megaloblastic anemia, cancer, and neural tube defects.
Vitamin B12 And Folic Acid
Urocanic acid is involved in many metabolic processes in order to generate formiminoglutamate which is known as "FIGLU" and is involved in generating glutamate with the help of formiminotransferase.
In folic acid deficiency, the catabolism of FIGLU is impaired and glutamate cannot be generated from formiminoglutamate; therefore, formiminoglutamate accumulates in the blood and is excreted in elevated amount in urine. Low glutamate level increases the likelihood of having schizophrenia, cognitive disorders, neuropsychiatric and anxiety disorders.
Also, glutamate plays an important role in the body's disposal of excess or waste nitrogen. Glutamate undergoes deamination, an oxidative reaction catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase. Some tissues are considered as glycine producers, while others, e. Both serine and glycine are transported across the mitochondrial membrane rapidly. Also, many processes inside the body are impaired, such as impaired function of RNA and DNA, fat and fatty acid metabolism, and muscle formation. Low level of either serotonin or tryptophan has been linked to depression, confusion, insomnia, and anxiety.
Moreover, low serine level leads to decreased performance of the immune system since serine is involved in antibody formation.
It is involved as 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate methionine in the methylation process where the methyl group is transferred to homocysteine to form methionine in the presence of methionine synthase enzyme. Methionine synthase is one of the only two enzymes known to be Bdependent enzymes.
This process depends on both folic acid as well as vitamin B This reaction needs ATP and vitamin B12 and also the presence of methionine adenosyl transferase [Figure 1].
Methionine is also known to be essential for the formation of collagen that is involved in the formation of skin, nails, and connective tissues, and low methionine level has negative effects in these processes and functions. Thymidylate synthase is involved in catalyzing the transfer of formaldehyde from folate to dUMP in order to form dTMP. Thymidylate synthase It is an enzyme that plays a role in the replication of cells and tissues.
From this cycle, the role of folate can be linked to cancer. Thymidylate synthase is a metabolic poison that is involved in causing functional folate deficiency, and body's cells grow rapidly as a result of increase in DNA synthesis. Many anti-cancer drugs act indirectly by inhibiting DHFR or directly by inhibiting thymidylate synthase.
Purine has many important roles in cell growth, division, and development, since it is considered to be along with the pyrimidine base of the DNA helix. In case of folate deficiency, there is an impairment of functions of purine, which means impairment in production of DNA, and leads to many problems inside the body, since DNA is the basis of every process.
DNA defects affect each part of the body, i. Megaloblastic anemia is described as presence of large-sized red blood cells than normal.
It results from the inhibition of DNA synthesis within red blood cell production. Since DNA synthesis becomes impaired, the cell cycle cannot progress and cell continues to grow without division, which presents as macrocytosis. It can be a result of vitamin B12 deficiency and also due to trapping folate, preventing it from doing its normal function.
This defect is caused by thymidylate synthesis defective with deoxyuridine triphosphate enlargement. Megaloblastic anemia leads to impairment of RBC, painful tingling of the hands and feet, gastrointestinal problems e. Also, formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, which is known as domain of C1 tetrahydrofolate synthetase gene, has been shown that it is linked to a high risk of having neural tube defect.
The most well-known type of this defect is "spina bifida," which can lead to many problems and issues, e. According to the spina bifida association, it can also lead to learning disabilities, gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, depression, urinary and bowel dysfunction, tendonitis, and allergies. Vitamin B12 commonly known as cyanocobalamin is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. The structure of vitamin B12 is based on a corrin ring, which is similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome and has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded.
The metabolic processes of folic acid and Vitamin B12 deficiency Mahmood L - J Health Res Rev
Cyanocobalamin cannot be made by plants or animals; bacteria and archaea are the only types of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin. Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil, and so are poor sources of the substance, as compared with animal tissues.
Vitamin B12 is naturally found in foods including meat especially liver and shellfisheggs, and milk products. Infants adequate intake months: The enzyme methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor. This enzyme is normally involved in the conversion of the amino acid homocysteine into methionine, while methionine, in turn, is required for DNA methylation. This conversion is an important step in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. In addition, succinyl CoA is necessary for the production of hemoglobin which is the substance that carries oxygen in red blood cells.
Vitamin B9 ( Folate, Folic Acid)
In case of vitamin B12 deficiency, the body does not have the ability to produce methionine, which leads to many problems. Also, the body does not have the ability to produce S-adenosyl methionine which is known as "SAM" product. These impairments lead to many problems and issues. The body loses its ability to produce the TCA cycle intermediate, succinyl CoA, which will lead to an impairment of TCA cycle as there is reduced conversion of succinate to fumarate, malate, and to the end product of the cycle, which is responsible for providing small amount of energy before going to electron transport chain which is responsible of high energy production.
Folic acid or folate may also help protect against cancers of the lung, colon, and cervix, and may help slow memory decline associated with aging. Pregnant women have an increased need for folic acid: Pregnant women and women of child-bearing age should take extra caution to get enough folic acid see below for recommended amounts. Deficiency has been linked to birth defects, low birth weight, pregnancy loss, depression, memory loss, and cervical dysplasia.
Alcoholics, pregnant women, and people living in institutional settings are at a higher risk of vitamin B9 or folate deficiency. Weil recommends mcg per day as part of a B-Complex supplement that contains a full spectrum of B vitamins, including biotin, thiamin, B12, riboflavin and niacin. The daily RDA for children from 0 to 6 months is 65 micrograms of folic acid; months, 80 micrograms; years, micrograms; years, micrograms; years, micrograms.
Spinach, green vegetables and beans are good sources, as are fortified products such as orange juice, baked goods, and cereals. Other natural sources of folate include asparagus, bananas, melons, lemons, legumesyeast, and mushrooms. Find more information about B vitamin foods from our infographic.
Folic acid has few side effects, even when taken in high amounts.