West Branch Susquehanna River - Wikipedia
the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers actually flow through two inter- connected areas with As a general aid in interpretation, comparative method has two .. directed innovative men to meet what appeared to be press. Evans was even. The Susquehanna River flows from upstate New York state to the legend claims that the name of the river comes from an Indian phrase meaning "mile wide. data, the health of the Susquehanna River Basin overall is improving. The mainstem Susquehanna River meets or exceeds its designated uses along most of its.
The Mid-Atlantic Flood of Junecaused by a stalled jet stream-driven storm system, affected portions of the river system.
The worst affected area was Binghamton, New Yorkwhere record-setting flood levels forced the evacuation of thousands of residents. Bridges, ferries, canals and dams[ edit ] See also: List of crossings of the Susquehanna River and List of dams and reservoirs of the Susquehanna River The Susquehanna River has played an important role in the transportation history of the United States. Prior to the opening of the Port Deposit Bridgethe river formed a barrier between the northern and southern states, as it could be crossed only by ferry.
The earliest dams were constructed to support ferry operations in low water. The presence of many rapids in the river meant that while commercial traffic could navigate down the river in the high waters of the spring thaws, nothing could move up.
The Susquehanna was improved by navigations throughout the s and s as the Pennsylvania Canal.
The Susquehanna River | Susquehanna River Valley Visitors Bureau
Together with facilities of the Allegheny Portage Railroadloaded barges were transferred from the canal and hoisted across the mountain ridge into the Pittsburgh area with access to the MonongahelaAllegheny Rivers and their confluence into the Ohio River flowing southwestwards towards the Mississippi River. The mile Union Canal was completed in to connect the Schuylkill River flowing southeast towards the Delaware River at Philadelphia at Reading westwards to the Susquehanna River above the state capital of Harrisburg.
The second was the much longer and more successful Susquehanna and Tidewater Canal. The canals required additional dams to provide sufficient canal water and navigation pools.
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As the industrial age progressed, bridges replaced ferries, and railroads replaced canals. The railroads were often constructed on top of the canal right-of-way along the river.
These latter remnants are parts of the upstream divisions of the Pennsylvania Canalof privately funded canals, and of canals in the New York system.
Today bridges cross the Susquehanna. The Rockville Bridgewhich crosses the river from Harrisburg to Marysville, Pennsylvaniawas the longest stone masonry arch bridge in the world when it was constructed, a distinction that it continues to hold. It was built by the Pennsylvania Railroad inreplacing an earlier iron bridge. Two seasonal ferries continue to operate across the Susquehanna.
Ice sheet melting opened up space further to the north enabling melt water floods to reverse flow direction and to erode north oriented valleys. Gradients on north oriented streams are lower than gradients on south oriented streams. Mina is the small town on the Allegheny River located near the figure 3 north center edge and Coudersport is located north and east of the figure 3 northeast corner.
The Allegheny River flows in a southwest direction from Coudersport to Mina and then turns to flow in a northwest direction before turning to flow in a north direction into New York State. South oriented drainage routes in the figure 3 south half drain to the Susquehanna River.
Major gaps crossing the Allegheny-Susquehanna drainage divide are marked and provide evidence of one time south oriented melt water flood flow channels. Two interpretations for the origin of these channels are possible. First, the Allegheny River valley did not exist when melt water floods first crossed the region and the Allegheny River valley eroded headward across a south oriented anastomosing channel complex.
The alternate interpretation is the Allegheny River valley did exist, but had been filled with a glacially dammed lake, which overflowed into the Susquehanna drainage basin. The presence of gaps all along the Allegheny-Susquehanna drainage divide with varying floor elevations and the need for a mechanism capable of eroding the Allegheny River valley and Susquehanna River tributary valleys argue against the glacial lake interpretation and for the melt water flood interpretation.
Keating Summit is located in the figure 4 east- center and is well-known gap or pass between the Allegheny drainage basin to the north and the Susquehanna drainage basin to the south.
North oriented drainage in figure 4 flows to the Allegheny River while south oriented drainage flows to the Susquehanna River. While the deepest gap linking the two drainage basins is at the small community labeled Keating Summit several other gaps also link the Allegheny and Susquehanna River drainage basins and are a continuation of a chain of gaps crossing the Allegheny-Susquehanna drainage divide seen in figures 2 and 3 and in regions located between figures 2 and 3 and between figures 3 and 4.
Gradients on the railroad at Keating Summit are steeper going into the Susquehanna River drainage basin than going into the Allegheny River drainage basin. This difference in gradients occurred because deeper Susquehanna River tributary valleys were actively eroding headward into the region until headward erosion of the Allegheny River valley north of figure 4 beheaded and reversed the south oriented flood flow channel at Keating Summit to create north oriented Allegheny Portage Creek.
Susquehanna River - Wikipedia
Yet to be beheaded flood flow channels east of figure 4 continued to supply floodwaters to the newly reversed Allegheny Portage Creek flood flow channel and eroded the west oriented Allegheny Portage Creek headwaters segment seen in figure 4 and also helped erode the north oriented Allegheny Portage Creek valley. Kettle Creek flows in a southwest and south direction from the figure 3 north edge west half to the figure 3 southwest corner and then in a south direction to join the east oriented West Branch Susquehanna River, which is located just south of figure 5.
These gaps provide evidence West Branch Susquehanna River tributary valleys east of Kettle Creek were eroded by south oriented floodwaters prior to headward erosion of the southwest oriented Kettle Creek valley segment and its tributary valleys.
West Branch Susquehanna River tributary valleys eroded headward probably along flood flow channel routes from the West Branch Susquehanna River valley north wall, which previously eroded headward across the south oriented anastomosing channel complex. Headward erosion of the southwest oriented Kettle Creek valley across the south oriented anastomosing channel complex was next and beheaded flood flow to the actively eroding West Branch Susquehanna River tributary valleys.
Because Kettle Creek is a south oriented stream an ice sheet dammed lake would not have formed in the Kettle Creek valley, which means the Kettle Creek valley did not exist when time melt water floods crossed the present day Kettle Creek-West Branch Susquehanna River drainage divide. Dayton is the town located near the figure 6 west edge south of center. Mahoning Creek meanders in a west and northwest direction across the north half of figure 6 before flowing to the figure 6 north edge.
North and west of figure 6 Mahoning Creek joins the south oriented Allegheny River.
Little Mahoning Creek flows in a northwest direction through the southeast quadrant of figure 6 to the Indiana-Armstrong County line and then turns to flow in a northeast direction to join west and northwest oriented Mahoning Creek as a barbed tributary. Multiple gaps cross the Mahoning Creek-Little Mahoning Creek drainage divide and are evidence of a south oriented anastomosing channel complex.
In the American Revolutionary Warsettlements throughout the Susquehanna valley were attacked by Loyalists and Native Americans allied with the British. After the Wyoming Valley battle and massacre in the summer of near what is now Wilkes-Barre and smaller local attacks, the " Big Runaway " occurred throughout the West Branch Susquehanna valley.
Settlers fled feared and actual attacks by the British and their allies. Homes and fields were abandoned, with livestock driven along and a few possessions floated on rafts on the river east to Muncythen further south to Sunbury. The abandoned property was burnt by the attackers. Some settlers soon returned, only to flee again in the summer of in the "Little Runaway".
Sullivan's Expedition helped stabilize the area and encouraged resettlement, which continued after the war. Because they settled in territory claimed by Native Americansthey had no recourse to the Pennsylvania colonial government.
West Branch Susquehanna River
Accordingly, they established what was known as the Fair Play System, with three elected commissioners who ruled on land claims and other issues for the group.
In a remarkable coincidence, the Fair Play Men made their own declaration of independence from Britain on July 4,beneath the "Tiadaghton Elm" on the banks of Pine Creek.
The fort was built under the direction of Colonel Antes, who was a member of the Pennsylvania militia.