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Unit 2: Introduction- Meet the Coywolf Number Sense & Numeration Five Frames with Snap Cubes .. Call Me Ishmael: An Introduction to Narrative Voice. The coywolf, a mixture of western coyote and eastern wolf, is a remarkable new hybrid carnivore that is taking Meet the Coywolf Poster Herself / Narrator. meeting here this week, is that there's much more to the resolution voice is bass, assumes a high, hillbilly inflection. "I make it Eddie Coy, Wolf Greater Shows; L. D. Burke and Oliver SNAP WYATT STUDIOS. Rt. 3, Box.
Though the body was nowhere to be found, the DNR suspected poaching and offered a cash reward for any information on the killing. Since wolves are still listed as an endangered species in Michigan, the punishment for killing a wolf is up to 90 days in jail and thousands of dollars in fines. According to Chris Hoving, an adaptation specialist for the DNR, hunters should know exactly what they are shooting at before they pull the trigger. The genetic testing indicated that the animals were a sort of hybrid—not wolves, but not pure coyotes Excellence in Upper-Level Writing 17 either.
The autosomal DNA—genetic information from both the father and the mother—was coyote. The DNR concluded that several generations back, a female eastern wolf likely mated with a coyote.
Meet the Coywolf
The offspring of this pair continued mating with coyotes and eventually came to produce the pack discovered in Cheboygan County in The plan, created in by the DNR, ensures that wolves can spread into the Lower Peninsula unmolested. The Endangered Species Act and the wolf management plan provide a protocol for dealing with wolves but not hybrids.
The Michigan officials are not alone in this confusing struggle to identify and manage enigmatic canines. The groundbreaking research showed there to be an abundance of mixing between and within the coyote and wolf species.
Now, New York State deals with the complex effects of the presence of canids that are not wolves, nor coyotes, but a mixture of both.
Many scientists involved in the research see it as grounds for a reevaluation of the current endangered species guidelines, which may no longer be relevant or useful.
For Chad Sherman, a resident of Wolverine, Michigan—a rural town of about people—the genetic details of the animals matter little. Sherman often meets with friends at the Marathon gas station just off of Interstate 75 for coffee and conversation.
He feels that the presence of wolves in northern Michigan will threaten his livelihood and that of many of others who work with livestock. Sherman could have good reason to worry.
Wolf depredation—the term used to describe wolf-caused killings—can cost livestock owners thousands of dollars, which the state must then repay in the form of indemnification.
He feels—and the Michigan DNR officially agree—that since the population of wolves in Michigan far exceeds the number required for de-listing, wolves no longer require federal protection.
Hoving explains that if a resident were to kill an animal that had the physical characteristics of a wolf, he or she would be prosecuted for killing an animal of an endangered species.
As for what remains of the original pack, first discovered inthey seem to be settling into their new Lower Peninsula home. One of the 20 Excellence in Upper-Level Writing radio-collared females still inhabits the forest near the biological station, according to Kleitch, and she may have given birth to pups, based on camera trap images and paw prints found. She was able to use an engaging writing style that was still technically strong for a scientific paper.
In addition to a well thought-out paper, she went above and beyond her other classmates to incorporate multiple aspects of the environment, both biotic and abiotic, into her discussion of the effects of keystone and invasive species to give the reader a broad understanding of issues surrounding these species.
She also discussed both socioeconomic and ecological impacts. Naomi paid close attention to comments made on previous drafts of the paper, showing that she cared about improving her writing. Comparing the Removal of the Gray Wolf Canis lupus to the Introduction of Invasive Water Hyacinths Eichhornia crassipes Abstract Ecosystems all over the world are delicately balanced and can be easily disrupted, especially by human involvement.
I will discuss two cases of human involvement that have negative impacts on ecosystems and involve two separate species. The first is the removal of the gray wolf Canis lupus from western national parks, and the second is the introduction of the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes into ecosystems worldwide. The gray wolf was extirpated from many areas of the American West in the early s.
This triggered trophic cascades affecting both riparian plant growth and, in turn, stream morphology. Wolf reintroduction in the s has reversed some of these effects, showing the importance of this apex predator. The water hyacinth was introduced into over 50 countries for use as an ornamental plant. Its propensity to reproduce asexually adds to its effectiveness as an aquatic invasive species. Introduction of the plant has not only shifted water chemistry and invertebrate communities, but has impacted the human use of waterways.
Attempts made to remove the invasive species are often unsuccessful. There is no easy way to say which human impact has a more negative affect overall, but it seems that the absence of wolves has a larger ecological impact while the introduction of the water hyacinth has a higher impact on socioeconomics. Introduction Both the wolf and water hyacinth systems are important for un- derstanding how seemingly simple changes made in stable ecosystems can have far-reaching effects.
The eradication of gray wolves Canis lupus in the western United States has a long history beginning at the turn of the 20th Excellence in Upper-Level Writing 23 century. Predator control programs were implemented in the West in an attempt to protect valuable livestock herds. Records of pelts turned in for bounty money gives the best estimation of the wolves decline and collapse; the peak of bounty payments spanned at just over pelts in the peak year, and then declined until after which no payments were made Riley et al.
Wolf populations have remained small but efforts have been made in recent decades to reintroduce wolves in an attempt to restore ecological areas to their historical compositions Riley et al. The concern over past eradication and reintroduction of wolves is, in part, because of the far-reaching effects of their absence. Wolves act as an apex predator; they are at the top of the food chain and are inextricably linked to all levels below them. The effects of wolf eradication and the effort made to reintroduce the predator gives a good insight into the potential of human impact on the ecosystem.
Wolf removal had far-reaching effects; however the introduction of a species can also have wide spread effects on an environment. The water hyacinth was most likely introduced as an ornamental plant, which then spread outside of garden ponds. Attempts have been made to eliminate or reduce populations of E. The gray wolf and water hyacinth are two examples of ways in which humans have inadvertently impacted the environment by the removal or introduction of a species.
These changes can have both direct and indirect effects on multiple aspects of the surrounding environment from which it becomes clear that even seemingly simple changes to the biota can have far-reaching and long lasting effects.
Cascading Effects of Wolf Eradication Trophic cascades triggered from the removal of wolves from a region or ecosystem can have major effects on both the biota and the environment. I will first focus on the biological ramifications of the cascade on both plants and animals. The study shows that after functional wolf eradication inpopulations of ungulates, especially Roosevelt elk Cervus canadensisgrew in size and altered their foraging patterns. This growth and alteration led to increased grazing on riparian flora, the plants which dominate land-stream interfaces, and restructuring of riparian plant communities.
In particular, stands of black cottonwood Populus trichocarpa were greatly affected by high browsing. Plots inside the park averaged around seedlings while plots outside averaged around 33, seedlings per hectare. Within some areas of the park, not only were stands difficult to locate, but they primarily contained trees over 90 years old, showing that there had been very little new growth.
The successional pattern has Excellence in Upper-Level Writing 25 therefore shifted away from cottonwoods toward red alder and sitka spruce.
It is clear from these observations that wolf removal indirectly, and negatively, impacts plant communities. In a study by Johnston et al. Beavers in Yellowstone National Park had an established mutualism with willows; the trees provided food and dam structure while the beaver dams provided an elevated water level essential for uninhibited willow growth Johnson et al.
Wolf removal shifted this mutualism and allowed increased indirect, or scramble, competition between elk and beaver. Trophic cascades can affect varying numbers of biotic levels but the cascade effect, in general, is a serious consequence of human-induced changes to an environment.
Other animal communities can also be affected by elk overgrazing and decreased riparian recruitment. Decreased cottonwood and other seedling tree recruitment can lead to a wider riverbank. This widening leads to decreased water contact with fallen trees and lessens the occurrence of large logs that are dragged into rivers in the Olympic area by flooding or other events and subsequently submerged on the river bottom. A widened riverbank can also decrease contact and fracture the link between the river and the riparian forest itself.
This may disrupt inputs of larval invertebrates by interrupting their lifecycles eg. These types of changes are less readily observed but are still a cause of concern for the cascading effects of apex predator removal. Abiotic Effects of Removal The second major effect of a trophic cascade triggered by the eradica- tion of the gray wolf Canis lupus is the multi-dimensional change occurring in the landscape and surrounding physical environment caused by the removal of the apex predator.
In the Beschta and Ripple study, after wolf removal led to over-browsed riparian zones, the dynamics of rivers within the Olympic Peninsula National park began to change. In general, riparian plants provide root structure which anchors and prevents erosion of river channels.
The channel widening and bank erosion in turn creates a feedback in which there is less optimal habitat for riparian plants, like cottonwoods, to root. Physical landscape changes also took place in the Johnston et al. Beavers were pushed out by elk over-grazing and the subsequent decrease in willow densities. These beavers abandoned their dams which degraded over time, releasing blocked water and lowering water levels of areas up-stream from the structures. The drop in stream level left willows far above the water line and produced the previously discussed stress.
Within a few years, some areas of the riparian zone showed a clear decrease in ungulate grazing and an increase in willow and cottonwood recruitment number of new seedlings as well as height. Recovery has been patchy most likely due to the hunting patterns of wolves and the responding shifting foraging patterns of ungulates.
However, there are some consequences to be expected from any large change in an ecosystem, even if it is being returned to an ancestral state.
Despite some drawbacks, wolf reintroduction has taken a major step in restoring an important, historical landscape to its ancestral state. In some cases, reintroduction is preferable to the alternative, which would be controlling the lower trophic level. In this case, wolf reintroduction is preferable to human reduction of elk populations.
In the study by Johnston et al. Lowered water levels from the absence of beavers placed stress on growing willows; this stress could be alleviated by grazing because the subsequent reduction of branch junctions increased conductivity and water uptake.
While it may seem like a viable alternative, this system still deviated wildly from historical conditions in which wolves kept elk populations in check and willow trees were not over-grazed.
Reduction of ungulate populations would only continue to reduce the recruitment of willows in water stressed areas where grazing is helpful to the plant Johnston et al. The feedback loop of willow growth and elk grazing could only be broken by the return of wolves to Yellowstone National Park. Work by Riley et al. The absence of wolves triggered far reaching effects that can be felt even today; with better understanding of the complexity of these ecosystems we are finally able to correct some of the past harm done and hopefully prevent a similar occurrence in the future.
The Introduction of Invasive Water Hyacinths Invasive Eichhornia crassipes can also have large and long-lasting effects on ecosystems into which it is introduced. Despite this fact, their introduction as a human-induced change still poses a negative threat to many freshwater ecosystems and to human use of the waterways. Success as an Invader Water hyacinths rank highly as a harmful invasive species owing much to their reproductive nature.
The hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes can reproduce both sexually and asexually, though genetic work by Ren and Zhang suggests that asexual cloning is the primary mode of reproduction because single clonal genotypes are very widespread. This clonal growth by use of stolons, which root out and sprout an entirely new but connected plant, contributes to the invasive success of E. Evidence comes from the number of clones present in an area with the least number in original founder locations and growing numbers further away.
Major Effects of Invasion Hyacinth invasions around the world have many effects on the sur- rounding ecosystem. However, unlike wolf eradication, these consequences are not neatly divided between abiotic and biotic effects on the environment. Eichhornia crassipes can greatly alter water quality in several ways including greatly decreasing dissolved oxygen content. The capability for nutrient uptake makes water hyacinths popular as waste water scrubbers, but can create imbalances in the nutrient levels of a normal freshwater ecosystem Moran Large hyacinth mats can negatively impact primary producers by out-competing them for space and sunlight.
Decreases in production caused by competition are not always immediately seen because hyacinths may trap detritus that acts as an alternate food source for these producers. Both zooplankton and fish community structures act in highly variable ways dependent on preexisting populations, chemical conditions, predator presence, and season.
Though research has not fully explored potential negative impacts on invaded ecosystems, continued research on E. The plants were found to be functional non-equivalents for several reasons. Different insect communities occupy the two species due to differences in plant structure; hyacinths have a more complex root mass and surface structure favored by a different set of insects.
Differing invertebrate fauna leads to variation in fish diets between plants species. Native amphipods are the preferred diet of fish in the study area and are found most abundantly within the native pennywort structure. Invasive amphipods prefer the invasive hyacinth but make up little to no portion of fish diet.
The invader may be consumed less because of greater ease in hiding in the larger root structure, or because of the lower level of caloric return provided by the smaller invertebrate. Control Efforts The ability of Eichhornia crassipes to spread quickly works to prevent complete eradication; even a single remaining plant can sprout an entire new mat. The coupling of the invasive plant and amphipod described above shows that removal of the water hyacinth could also affect other factors that would help to return the system to its ancestral state as a whole Toft et al.
A study completed in ecosystems in Texas researched the use of biological controls in the form of weevils to damage and remove mats of E.
Weevils did inflict damage in the form of leaf herbivory and scarring, as well as indirectly cause a nutrient loss in the hyacinths. However, the weeExcellence in Upper-Level Writing 31 vils were not overly effective in removing water hyacinth colonies and were unable to maintain populations large enough to do damage in areas where hyacinth mats were disturbed such as high energy streams Moran This is just one attempted solution to hyacinth removal but there have been few truly effective and ecologically friendly eradication efforts largely due to a variety of interfering variables.
Other solutions include mechanical removal which is cheapest but the decomposing left-over biomass can alter nutrient levels in the water. While there has been partial success, it seems that more research is necessary to fully control and reduce populations of water hyacinth.
Comparison of Effects of Wolf Removal vs. The dynamics of both trophic cascades and species invasions can cause serious and far-reaching effects on the surrounding ecosystem. We can look at the comparison from a few different perspectives to answer the question in different terms. Socio-economic Impact Both the introduction and the removal of a species can have reper- cussions on humans, but this impact is easier to conclusively measure in the case of water hyacinths.
Ecosystem services, such as biotourism, can be negatively impacted by the absence of large, apex predators. Predator absence could result in lowered biodiversity and possible decreased public interest in an ecosystem Ray et al. However, these negative effects are often overlooked because of their lower impact on humans.
If wolf absence directly impacted human economic gain, it most likely would not have taken over 60 years for wolves to be reintroduced into some areas. Water hyacinth, contrastingly, causes problems in water navigation, impacts fisheries, and can interfere 32 Excellence in Upper-Level Writing with the running of hydroelectric power plants Villamagna and Murphey Ecosystem Impact Both species changes can cause wide and varying impacts on their surrounding ecosystem; however wolf removal appears more serious in this case because of the delicately balanced system and cascading system of trophic levels.
Wolf removal was shown to have impacted the biota and landscape of both the Yellowstone and Olympic Peninsula national parks in large and lasting ways. The effects of their removal are still present in the parks today, even after the beginnings of wolf reintroductions. Water hyacinths on the other hand, show inconclusive long lasting effects on their ecosystem as well as probable ease of return to the natural state after plant removal. Conclusion The human presence on the planet has caused large and often ir- reversible changes to a number of ecosystems.
Species extirpation and spreading of alien species are only two of the ways in which our actions can impact the earth for years to come. The two cases presented here are just two ways in which a seemingly simple change can have effects on both the biota of a system and on the physical aspects of an environment.
Wolf extirpation triggered trophic cascades affecting riparian plant growth and river channel morphology while introduced water hyacinths changed surrounding water chemistry and invertebrate communities. These types of changes should be cause for concern and further research as well as act as a warning to prevent the types of future human-induced changes that could have equally negative and far-reaching effects. Biological Conservation, Moran PJ Water nutrients, plant nutrients, and indicators of biological control on waterhyacinth at Texas field sites.
Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 44, Northwest Science, 78, Aquatic Botany, 87, Estuaries and Coasts, 26, Freshwater Biology, 55, I would find as many different types as I could and gather one of each, the largest blooms. I would walk them back to the porch, where I would sweep clean a solitary brick, as though sterilizing an operating table.
Then, one by one, I would pick the plants apart, peeling away the layers one at a time, piercing and prying secreted cores with tiny fingernails and scooping the seeds into my palm. I set out each cadaver neatly surrounded by its parts and moved methodically to the next. They were so complicated once you started paying attention. No one knows quite how, but cells use time. Circadian rhythms, the bio- logical programming that influences sleep cycles, are caused mostly by large groups of cells doing the same thing simultaneously.
And so, at the same time every day, the cells of every living thing in any given time zone do the same thing in unison.
[HELP][VENT] Coyotes just chased us for about a mile out of the woods : dogs
Unity among seemingly independent beings is something of a recurring theme in science, though there is frequently no plausible explanation. Such inexplicable interaction can be observed in almost every science, on nearly every scale. It is called synchronicity. In school, I was drawn to biology, where I found fellow dissectors of flowers, other kids who poked dead birds with sticks and cultivated mold in their sandwich bags. We were all curious; we felt our observations were somehow worthwhile. With each passing year, the topics in biology got finer and more detailed.
The first year, teachers might explain that plants make their own food. The next they might call it photosynthesis. By high school we were naming the parts of the cell necessary for the process, and halfway through college we could recite the chemical equation itself, down to the last photon and enzyme. My fellow students and I ate it up, hungered for the next step, the next layer to peel away, but soon biology became too big Excellence in Upper-Level Writing 37 to support itself.
It fractured into disciplines and we were forced to pick a specialty. The residents of Old Orchard Beach beat me up, left me paralyzed for 5 months, 18 months relearning to walk, and crippled on a cane for the rest of my life. My life has been destroyed. And do YOU even care? Did YOU do anything to stand up to the Cyrs?
Did YOU do anything to help me? Did YOU do anything to help Etiole? Did YOU do anything to help my cats? Did YOU do anything to help the 35 children who now dead?
Did YOU do anything to help the police officers, also now dead? The residents of Old Orchard Beach filled my motorhome with feces 3 feet deep. Our lives destroyed by hate. The residents of Old Orchard Beach kidnapped my cats and are currently holding them hostage. Our lives destroyed by the monsters who run around this town proclaiming to to be "family friendly". Not just white families. Not just Christian families. The residents of Old Orchard Beach cut my cats heads' off and nailed them to my door.
/ and / Upper-Level Writing Prize Book by Cassie Basler - Issuu
Because the residents of Old Orchard Beach are insane, narrow minded, hate mongers, who see nothing wrong with terrorizing women, murdering cats, and doing it in the name of God and religion.
They claim they are justified in their terrorist attacks and hate crimes, because they say, a demon lives in my yard. Come see the KKK Cross standing in the shadow of the 30 foot hole in my yard, that is all that remains of my house after demon hunting religion crazed lunatics blew it up with a bomb The worst part of all of this, is I never told any body about Etiole. The story was spread to the world by a toddler raping uncle who was taken to court on child rape charges, by 4 of his nieces, and he retaliated against ALL of his nieces by creating wild stories about them and posting them all over the internet along with the girls' names, photos, and home addresses.
I was one of the 64 nieces he had done this to I wonder if he knew, what simpletons this town was, how very little intelligence existed in Old Orchard Beach, a town, where people think nothing of murdering cats, cutting up cars, a building bombs to try to kill an elderly woman, who they in their infinite Christian wisdom, believe MUST die, because the little homeless man living in her car MUST be a demon. Could he ever have imagined, the level of violence and terror the residents of Old Orchard Beach would turn to, as a result of his lies?
The other problem was it was three brothers: David, Richard Merlin, and Mervin Bruce They were also men whom I had not seen since the drug raid when I was 8 years old and they fled the state of Maine with drug enforcement state police officers on their tails.
In other words, the amphibious alien rumors were made up by a group of men who were trying to discredit anyone who might have been a witness to their crimes. They are currently hoarding mass piles of illegal military gun, waiting for the "trump of jubalee" to sound the arrival of Jesus ridding in on Comet Wormwood to take them to Planet Kolob on his space ship.
The issue is further complicated by the fact that 3 of David's adult children are founding members of a group that calls themselves "The Loyalist White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan" and have made a name for themselves in the Bangor region, by cutting off cat heads and dumping buckets of feces in people's beds. It appears they are NOT KKK, as the KKK is an actual organized religious denomination, with basic rules and guidelines covering their beliefs and actions, and this local supposedly "KKK" group, seems to know nothing about the KKK's religion, do not wear actual KKK robes, and appear rather simply a local gang who likes wearing pillow cases and mimicking inaccurate stereotypes about the KKK.
They seem to be nothing more then a group of ill informed young adults who saw innacurate portrayals of Ku Klux Klan in movies and thought it'd be fun to do what they saw in movies, without actually finding out what the KKK believes or does in reality.
If you hadn't noticed by now, they are religion crazed lunatics who believe only around 30, people are going to go to Heaven which is the name of a city on Planet Kolob, according to them and that those 30, are the pure white descendants of an ancient alien race.
They also believe that it is their duty to kill all non-whites, because they claim that non-whites are not Humans but are in fact demonic reptiles from outer space, sent by Satan to deceive the ACTUAL non-alien humans.
Thus why they are stock piling machine guns and automatic rifle. What you are dealing with is a small group of criminals, wanted by the FBI for human trafficking, domestic terrorism, stockpiling illegal weapons, drug dealing, and UFO suicide cult affiliations. In other words, the men who started the rumor were a group of brothers who are radical conspiracy theorists, known for starting UFO cult groups, spreading terror, and coming up with some of the most outlandish theories out there.
One of the many cults they had affiliation with over the years was Heaven's Gate. This tells you up front the type of fear mongering, doomsday prophet mind set you are dealing with. Knowing the history of the men who made up the amphibious alien story AND knowing their motives for doing so, changes the story quite a lot.
The Amphibious Aliens Squidoo Page: The Battle of Aproximatly 70 adults took part in the shoot out. I was 8 years old and a boy standing beside me had his eye shot out of his head.