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The reality: It's healthy for older adults to express their sexuality. And they are more vigorous than ever before. .. take you and your partner more time to become aroused and reach orgasm than it did in your younger years. When we do have sex, which is not that often, once or twice a month, he has . to doing as much as you can to understanding and meeting the other party in the. I am pleased to share with you this publication on The Evaluation of Comprehensive Sexuality This publication is the outcome of an expert group meeting convened by UNFPA, UNESCO, before gender roles and norms are solidified.
Improving and systematizing teacher training, and diversifying teaching approaches to encourage active student participation and promote practical skills, confidence and agency, are essential if SRH education is to be delivered accurately and effectively.
Further steps should be taken to demystify and desensationalize sexuality among adolescents, and continued sensitization of the community, teachers and school heads is needed to ensure that adolescents are supported in learning SRH-related skills. Despite efforts targeting young people, recent studies suggest a persistent need for SRH information and services, further emphasizing the need for high-quality sexuality education.
Contraception, unplanned births and abortion Contraceptive use is relatively low among adolescents in Ghana. Fourteen percent of all adolescents in Ghana have begun childbearing i.
There is also evidence that adolescents are particularly vulnerable to having unintended pregnancies that result in abortions.
In addition, HIV prevention education has been incorporated into the school system and after-school programs. Males are more likely than females to report having comprehensive knowledge, and adolescents in Greater Accra demonstrate higher levels of knowledge than those in Brong Ahafo and Northern regions.
Nationally, HIV prevalence has been lower than in other countries in the subregion, never exceeding 3. Rates of HIV infection among 15—year-olds over the years have remained below the national average, except inwhen the rate of 1. The Ministry of Education and the Ghana Education Service have collaborated with key agencies, notably the Ministry of Health and the Ghana Health Service, to provide sexuality education in schools.
Topics related to SRH are integrated into core and elective subjects, and as co-curricular activities.
The policy environment and program structure are discussed in Chapter 3. Scope of this report Reviews of policies and curricula pertaining to sexuality education have shown that while many countries have established curricula, little is known about their use in schools—the degree of implementation, the mode and quality of the instruction, the existence of program monitoring and evaluation tools, the adequacy and quality of teacher training, the level of support for or opposition to the subject, and the effectiveness of existing programs in achieving desired knowledge and behavioral outcomes among students.
Data from official documents, key informant interviews and school-based surveys were used to examine how sexuality education programs in three regions were developed, implemented and experienced. The information presented is intended to provide the Ghana government and other stakeholders with a better understanding of sexuality education in schools, and ultimately to improve the quality and effectiveness of such education for both teachers and students.
Peru, Guatemala, Ghana and Kenya. While a major aim of the overall study is to compare all four countries, this report presents findings only for Ghana. Study objectives The goal of this study was to provide a robust, comprehensive analysis of policies and curricula regarding SRH education in Ghana and their implementation in secondary schools, with a focus on three geographically and ethnically diverse regions: Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Northern.
Specific objectives included documenting policies and curricula on SRH education, describing the implementation of these, assessing the comprehensiveness of the content, examining the opinions and attitudes of students and teachers regarding such education, and providing recommendations to inform the design and implementation of such programs in schools in Ghana and beyond.
Defining comprehensive sexuality education The terminology used to describe sexuality education varies across countries; in Ghana, the term sexual and reproductive health education is widely employed, and we therefore use that terminology when referring specifically to Ghana throughout this report.
Assessing the comprehensiveness of topics offered Because one aim of the study was to measure the comprehensiveness in the range of topics offered, we assessed this range according to international standards, in order to provide a baseline measure for developing policies or curricula in the future.
The topics considered in this study reflect a broad approach that could reasonably be expected in Ghana, given cultural contexts.
Promoting Awareness of sexuality of older people in residential care
For example, we did not include topics such as sexual pleasure or desire, which are not culturally appropriate in the country setting. We did include abstinence, as this approach persists in many developing as well as some developed countries.
Using various international guidelines, we identified five topic categories as key components of a comprehensive program Box 2. The presence or absence of the topics in each category was used to measure comprehensiveness in the range of topics offered. We defined three levels: In addition to these topics, our study examined concepts and messages that may be delivered—and the values, attitudes and life skills nurtured—as part of a comprehensive approach to SRH education Box 2.
These elements focus on gender, rights and empowerment, risk-reduction skills, interpersonal relationships and positive views on healthy sexuality. To gain a more nuanced understanding of what is taught in the classroom and the tone in which the teaching is delivered, we assessed, among both students and teachers, the extent to which the concepts and messages were emphasized.
We did not, however, include these concepts in our measure of comprehensiveness in the range of topics. Limitations of the comprehensiveness measure The measure we developed addresses only the range of topics taught, not other essential components that may determine the comprehensiveness of an SRH education program, such as integration of youth and community engagement into curriculum development, use of participatory teaching methods, safety of the learning environment, and links to SRH services and other initiatives that address adolescent sexual and reproductive health issues.
For example, our measure assessed whether a school teaches about contraception, but did not capture the accuracy of information, the value judgments conveyed or the time spent teaching about contraception. Study design This cross-sectional assessment evaluates the implementation of SRH education in three regions in Ghana. In addition to reviewing existing policies, curricula and other documents regarding adolescent sexual and reproductive health, the study collected data from three sources.
In-depth interviews with key informants. Informants were asked about their views on current SRH education policy; opinions about the design, structure, coverage and content of the program; experiences implementing it in the school system, including how to better support it and challenges faced; perceived sources of support for or opposition to implementation at the national, regional and school levels; and monitoring and evaluation frameworks in place.
Survey of senior high school heads and teachers. Survey of senior high school students. Sampling strategy Key informant interviews Twenty-five key informants were identified through consultation with a wide range of stakeholders involved in policy making, program implementation or advocacy regarding SRH education.Irish Blessing (Until We Meet Again) - Michael John Trotta
Informants included Ministry of Education staff involved in the development of policies and curricula related to SRH education, as well as national stakeholders and individuals with international agencies and NGOs involved in implementation.
Also included were individuals working for groups advocating for or opposing the provision of SRH education in schools, and leaders of community organizations e.
Survey of schools Selection of regions. For the school-based quantitative survey, a multistage sampling process was adopted.
In accordance with the methodology used by the Ghana Statistical Service, the country was divided into three zones: Southern regions that have coastal strips: Eastern, Ashanti and Brong Ahafo; Northern regions in the northern savannah zone: Northern, Upper East and Upper West. One region was selected from each zone.
In the Southern zone, Greater Accra was purposively selected because it includes the national capital and, therefore, decision makers at the national, regional and local levels.
For the other two zones, Brong Ahafo and Northern were randomly selected. The second stage involved the selection of schools in the three regions. Of these 82 schools, 13 were dropped from the original sample and replaced—seven in Northern including two single-sex schoolsfour in Greater Accra and two in Brong Ahafo—for reasons such as being on break during the survey period or not having enough students between the ages of 15 and Only two of the 13 schools were replaced because of refusal to participate: One was a private, all-male seminary school in the Northern region that did not allow questions about sexuality to be asked, and one was a public school in Greater Accra that refused because it had not received a letter from the regional director of education.
Selection of school heads and teachers. In each of the schools, the head of the school or the assistant head if the head was not available was automatically selected to complete the survey. In four schools, the heads or assistant heads were unable to make time after two or more researcher requests, and therefore only 78 schools are represented for indicators that rely on information from the school heads.
Teachers were selected on the basis of their involvement in teaching SRH education topics to students in Form 2 or 3 i. Since these topics are integrated into biology, social studies, integrated science and management in living, teachers of these subjects were targeted in each sampled school.
These teachers were identified through consultation with the school head, and up to five teachers per school were selected on the basis of availability on the day of the survey and an aim to cover the range of different subjects. In one school, no teachers were available, so only 81 schools are represented for indicators that rely on teacher-level data. All students in Forms 2 and 3 and aged 15—17 were eligible for selection. These students were selected because they were likely to have been exposed to at least one year of SRH education in high school and could therefore provide the information we sought to collect.
Although this age range was targeted, students aged 13—14 and those older than 17 who were in Form 2 or 3 were not excluded from participating. One percent of students who participated were either younger than 15 or older than 17; three students—one in each region—refused to participate.
To ensure equal representation of each school within its region, the number of sampled students per school was proportionate to school size. To minimize potential bias, all eligible students registered in Forms 2 and 3 at each school were gathered in a room and a ballot box was used to randomly select the desired sample of students. In one school, only one student was available at the time of the survey, so no student survey was done, and only 81 schools are represented for indicators that rely on student-level data.
Such myths aren't the legends from classical history. They're the stories we tell ourselves and each other to support the notion that older people shouldn't, can't, and wouldn't want to have sex.
This type of myth, however, bears as little relationship to reality as do the fanciful sagas of ancient gods and goddesses.
Here are some examples of the most popular sexual myths and the myth-busting truths. Only the young are sexually attractive. The culture we live in exalts youth. Turn on the TV or open a magazine and you'll be barraged with images of supple skin, firm flesh, and lustrous locks.
But if your mirror is reflecting a different picture these days, you may feel like the party is going on without you. Older can be quite sexy. Sure, thinning hair, laugh lines, and a paunchy midriff are no picnic.
But think back on what it was that made you attractive in your younger years. Was it your soulful brown eyes, your crooked smile, or maybe your infectious laugh? Chances are, those attributes are still as appealing as ever. In fact, a survey conducted by the AARP and Modern Maturity magazine revealed that the percentage of people age 45 and older who consider their partners physically attractive increases with age.
Sexuality in later life is undignified. Whether it's the white-haired grandmother fussing with her knitting or the loveable old codger puffing on a pipe, society is inclined to desexualize older adults. When older adults do express their sexuality, it's often viewed with derision — for example, the stereotype of the "dirty old man.
It's healthy for older adults to express their sexuality. People are living longer and remaining healthier. And they are more vigorous than ever before.
Born this way? Society, sexuality and the search for the 'gay gene'
Former president George H. Bush went skydiving to celebrate his 75th birthday, John Glenn returned to space at age 77, and Carol Sing forged a new world record at 57 by becoming the oldest woman to swim the English Channel. With this trend toward later-life vitality, why shouldn't seniors be allowed to cast off outdated and ill-fitting stereotypes in order to express their normal, healthy sexual appetites?
Men and women lose their ability to perform sexually after a certain age. Vaginal dryness and erectile difficulties loom large as you hurtle past You may be feeling that you should just listen to what your body is trying to tell you: Sex is a thing of the past.
You can still have a satisfying sex life. While a certain degree of physical change is unavoidable, this fact of life doesn't necessarily translate into insurmountable sexual problems.
Human sexuality - Wikipedia
For men, the Viagra revolution means most erection problems can be corrected with little medical intervention. For women, high-tech vaginal lubricants and hormone creams and rings are viable substitutes for what nature no longer supplies. What's important for both sexes to remember, though, is that a softer erection, reduced natural lubrication, or a less intense orgasm doesn't mean you're no longer interested in your partner or in sex itself.
For many couples, these kinds of changes provide an impetus for developing a new, rich, and satisfying style of lovemaking — one that's based more on extended foreplay and less on intercourse and orgasm. Sex is boring when you get older.
Drooping libido, slower rates of arousal, and the predictability of having the same partner for 20 or more years all add up to a ho-hum sex life. Sex is as good as you make it. While it's true that a year-old will have a faster, harder erection and a more forceful ejaculation than his year-old counterpart, it doesn't mean the quality of the experience is necessarily better.
On the contrary, the older man has better control of his ejaculations. Less penile sensitivity means he may be able to enjoy a wider range of erotic sensations and maintain his erection longer. And his experience may pay off in improved sexual technique and a better understanding of what will please his partner.
Many women begin to find sexual confidence in their 30s, and this blossoms with maturity. As a woman moves through her 40s, her orgasms actually become more intense, and she can still have multiple orgasms.
After menopause, when she's free of any worry about pregnancy, she can give herself over to the pure enjoyment of sex. Although longtime partners do have to contend with issues of familiarity in their relationship, these problems can be offset by greater emotional intimacy and trust.
Because inhibitions often lessen with age, sex at 50 or 60 may include a level of experimentation and playfulness you wouldn't have dreamed of in your younger years. Statistics on sexuality and sexual satisfaction InModern Maturity magazine and the AARP foundation polled 1, adults age 45 and older about the role sex played in their lives.
The findings paint a detailed picture of sexuality at midlife and later.
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The importance of sex Over all, the majority of men But an even higher percentage At age 75, the proportion dropped to one in four. Still, nearly three-quarters of respondents of all ages had intercourse once a month or more, provided they had partners.
However, when the group was examined as a whole, one out of five men and two out of five women had not participated in any form of sexual touching or caressing over the last six months. Men tended to think about sex and feel sexual desire more frequently than women.
While rates of intercourse were similar for both sexes, more men than women reported engaging in sexual touching. Self-s timulation on a regular basis was also about eight times higher among men. Factors affecting sexual satisfaction Not surprisingly, one of the major factors associated with respondents' satisfaction was the availability of a partner. In the 45—59 age group, roughly four out of five individuals had partners; by comparison, only one in five women over 75 had partners.
Declining health also appeared to have an effect on sexual activity and satisfaction. On a list of features that might improve their sexual satisfaction, the men ranked better health for themselves or their partners at the top.
Although impotence emerged as a significant issue for nearly a quarter of the men, less than half of those men had ever sought medical treatment for the problem.
Survey facts and figures What participants said, in a nutshell Men A good relationship with a spouse or partner is important to quality of life While the initial prerequisites for sexual activity are physiological — functional sex organs, adequate hormone levels, and freedom from healt h conditions that interfere with the body's ability to respond to erotic cues — these elements don't guarantee sexual satisfaction.
Stress, anxiety, self-esteem issues, negative past experiences, lifestyle demands, loss of loved ones, and relationship conflicts can weigh heavily. During midlife and beyond, these factors, combined with naturally occurring physical changes, can make you vulnerable to sexual problems.
Lack of a partner It may seem obvious that not having a partner is an impediment to an active sex life, but it's an especially important issue for older people.
By age 65, many people find themselves alone, through either divorce or widowhood. This affects sexuality in a variety of ways. The partner gap is a particular problem for American women because their average life span 79 years is more than five years longer than that of men. Because American women marry men who are on average three years older, that can mean even more time alone.
Should a woman want to remarry, her chance of finding a new mate in her age bracket dwindles yearly; there is an average of only 7 men for every 10 women age 65 and above.
All this boils down to the fact that, compared with men, women are likely to live a greater portion of their lives without a mate. Finally, starting a new sexual relationship after divorce or the death of a spouse can present its own dilemmas.
People often fear that they will not become aroused or be able to have an orgasm with a different partner. They also may be self-conscious about baring their body in front of someone new.