Parent-Child Relationships - baby, Definition, Description
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How did your relationship with your parents contribute to who you are today, or did it? Many psychologists believe that the relationships between parents and children are very important in determining who we become and how we relate to others and the world. Parent-Child Relationship Types Parent-child relationships can be biological or adopted. Biological parents and children share genetic material, while adoptive parents and children usually do not.
Adoptive parent-child relationship are most often legal agreements that form a permanent parent-child relationship. The relationship between parents and their children is important to consider when discussing physical, cognitive, and social development in children. Parent-Child Relationship Theories Theorists in developmental psychology examine the parent-child relationship as an important tool in understanding how individuals develop over time.
Sigmund Freud believed that adult development was largely defined by the relationships that children share with their parents. For example, if an adult female struggles in intimate relationships with males, Freud probably would have blamed it on an unhealthy relationship with her father.
Similarly, Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory of development proposes that infants who have caregivers meeting their basic needs will grow into trusting adults, but infants whose needs are not met will develop feelings of mistrust in future relationships. Other important theories on relationships between children and parents focus on parents as teachers.
In other words, we are taught how to behave and relate to others through our relationships with our parents. Lev Vygotsky viewed parents as masters and the child as an apprentice in learning. Albert Bandura's social learning theory likened parents to models who demonstrate behavior that children then copy.
For example, if we are hugged by our parents and see our parents being physically affectionate toward others, Bandura's theory would assume that we would become huggers too.
Parenting Styles In an effort to better understand the parent-child relationship, Diana Baumrind performed research that focused on the parents. Preschool Various parenting styles evolve during the preschool years.
Parent-Child Relationships: Definition & Explanation
Preschoolers with authoritative parents are curious about new experiences, focused and skilled at playself-reliant, self-controlled, and cheerful. School age During the elementary school years, the child becomes increasingly interested in peers, but this is not be a sign of disinterest in the parent-child relationship. Rather, with the natural broadening of psychosocial and cognitive abilities, the child's social world expands to include more people and settings beyond the home environment.
The parent-child relationship remains the most important influence on the child's development. Children whose parents are both responsive and demanding continue to thrive psychologically and socially during the middle childhood years. During the school years, the parent-child relationship continues to be influenced by the child and the parents.
In most families, patterns of interaction between parent and child are well established in the elementary school years. Adolescence As the child enters adolescencebiological, cognitive, and emotional changes transform the parent-child relationship. The child's urges for independence may challenge parents' authority.
Many parents find early adolescence a difficult period. Adolescents fare best and their parents are happiest when parents can be both encouraging and accepting of the child's needs for more psychological independence.
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Although the value of peer relations grows during adolescence, the parent-child relationship remains crucial for the child's psychological development. Authoritative parenting that combines warmth and firmness has the most positive impact on the youngster's development. Adolescents who have been reared authoritatively continue to show more success in school, better psychological development, and fewer behavior problems.
Adolescence may be a time of heightened bickering and diminished closeness in the parent-child relationship, but most disagreements between parents and young teenagers are over less important matters, and most teenagers and parents agree on the essentials. By late adolescence most children report feeling as close to their parents as they did during elementary school.
Parenting styles Parenting has four main styles: Although no parent is consistent in all situations, parents do follow some general tendencies in their approach to childrearing, and it is possible to describe a parent-child relationship by the prevailing style of parenting.
These descriptions provide guidelines for both professionals and parents interested in understanding how variations in the parent-child relationship affect the child's development. Parenting style is shaped by the parent's developmental history, education, and personality; the child's behavior; and the immediate and broader context of the parent's life.
Also, the parent's behavior is influenced by the parent's work, the parents' marriage, family finances, and other conditions likely to affect the parent's behavior and psychological well-being. In addition, parents in different cultures, from different social classes, and from different ethnic groups rear their children differently. In any event, children's behavior and psychological development are linked to the parenting style with which they are raised.
Authoritarian parents Authoritarian parents are rigid in their rules; they expect absolute obedience from the child without any questioning. They also expect the child to accept the family beliefs and principles without questions. Authoritarian parents are strict disciplinarians, often relying on physical punishment and the withdrawal of affection to shape their child's behavior.
Children raised with this parenting style are often moody, unhappy, fearful, and irritable. They tend to be shy, withdrawn, and lack self-confidence.
If affection is withheld, the child commonly is rebellious and antisocial. Authoritative parents Authoritative parents show respect for the opinions of each of their children by allowing them to be different. Although there are rules in the household, the parents allow discussion if the children do not understand or agree with the rules. These parents make it clear to the children that although they the parents have final authority, some negotiation and compromise may take place.
Authoritative parents are both responsive and demanding; they are firm, but they discipline with love and affection, rather than power, and they are likely to explain rules and expectations to their children instead of simply asserting them.
This style of parenting often results in children who have high self-esteem and are independent, inquisitive, happy, assertive, and interactive. Permissive parents Permissive indulgent parents have little or no control over the behavior of their children. If any rules exist in the home, they are followed inconsistently.
Underlying reasons for rules are given, but the children decide whether they will follow the rule and to what extent. They learn that they can get away with any behavior. Indulgent parents are responsive but not especially demanding. They have few expectations of their children and impose little or inconsistent discipline. There are empty threats of punishment without setting limits.
Role reversal occurs; the children act more like the parents, and the parents behave like the children. Children of permissive parents may be disrespectful, disobedient, aggressive, irresponsible, and defiant. They are insecure because they lack guidelines to direct their behavior. However, these children are frequently creative and spontaneous. Although low in both social responsibility and independence, they are usually more cheerful than the conflicted and irritable children of authoritarian parents.
Disengaged parents Finally, disengaged detached parents are neither responsive nor demanding. They may be careless or unaware of the child's needs for affection and discipline. Children whose parents are detached have higher numbers of psychological difficulties and behavior problems than other youngsters. Parental concerns Child's development is affected by family conditions such as divorce, remarriage, and parental employment.
The parent-child relationship has a more important influence on the child's psychological development than changes in the composition of the household. Parenting that is responsive and demanding is related to healthier child development regardless of the parent's marital or employment status. If changes in the parent's marital status or work life disrupt the parent-child relationship, short-term effects on the child's behavior may be noticeable.
One goal of professionals who work with families under stress is to help them reestablish healthy patterns of parent-child interaction.
The relationship between a parent’s words and child executive function
Discipline is also a concern of parents. Children's behavior offers challenges to even the most experienced and effective parents.
The manner in which parents respond to a child's behavior has an effect on the child's self-esteem and future interactions with others. Children learn to view themselves in the same way the parent views them. Thus, if the parent views the child as wild, the child begins to view himself that way and soon his actions consistently reinforce his self image.
This way, the child does not disappoint the parent.
This pattern is a self-fulfilling prophecy. While discipline in necessary to teach a child how to live comfortably in society, it should not be confused with punishment. Coping —In psychology, a term that refers to a person's patterns of response to stress. Culture —A test in which a sample of body fluid is placed on materials specially formulated to grow microorganisms.
A culture is used to learn what type of bacterium is causing infection. Discipline —In health care, a specific area of preparation or training, i. Family —Two or more emotionally involved people living in close proximity and having reciprocal obligations with a sense of commonness, caring, and commitment. Moving from Rewards and Punishment to Reason and Love. For All Things a Season: