The consumer revolution (article) | Khan Academy
If increased colonial purchases of British goods or goods from other British colonies resulted from colonial prosperity that came about through backdoor trade. Shared literature, style, and consumption linked the British colonies with the home country. Politics and native relations in the New England colonies demand for colonial labor helped give rise to a wealthy colonial class—the gentry —in and other publications became available to readers on both sides of the Atlantic. But there is another and very relevant way of looking at the relationship While religious diversity existed from the beginning of British colonization, the vast . Thus, the goal of both the English king and the financial backers - those who owned . of the Virginia Colony, "The chief Design of all Parties concern'd was to fetch.
New England winters are notoriously severe and the pilgrims have, in a phrase of the time, 'all things to doe, as in the beginning of the world'. Only half the group survive that first winter and spring. Of eighteen married women, just five are alive when the first harvest is reaped in The survivors thank the Lord for nature's bounty in the ceremony of Thanksgivingwith the local Indians sharing in this first annual celebration. A large indigenous fowl, the turkeymakes an admirable centrepiece.
The settlers have found it living wild in the forests of New England. These pioneering families become known to their contemporaries as the Old Comers they are first referred to as Pilgrim Fathers inand are more often known now in the USA simply as the Pilgrims. The ritual of Thanksgiving is not the only great tradition which the pilgrims bequeath to modern America. Their example of self-reliance becomes a central strand in the American ideal.
It will be fully maintained by other English communities establishing themselves, just ten years later, further north in Massachusetts. Massachussetts and New England: The situation at home adds a further incentive. England is undergoing a recession; and William Laud bishop of London fromarchbishop of Canterbury from is trying to impose the episcopalian form of Christianity on the country by force.
Economics and conscience pull in the same direction. In a Puritan group secures from the king a charter to trade with America, as the Massachusetts Bay Company. Led by John Winthrop, a fleet of eleven vessels sets sail for Massachusetts in The ships carry settlers, cows and 60 horses.
Winthrop also has on board the royal charter of the company. The enterprise is to be based in the new world rather than in London. This device is used to justify a claim later passionately maintained by the new colony - that it is an independent political entity, entirely responsible for its own affairs.
In Winthrop selects Boston as the site of the first settement, and two years later the town is formally declared to be the capital of the colony. This concept chimes well with the settlers' religious attitudes. They are Congregationalistscommitted to the notion that the members of each church are a self-governing body.
The towns of Massachusetts become like tiny city-states - each with a church at its centre, and with the church members as the governors. This is oligarchy rather than democracy, but it is an oligarchy based on perceived virtue rather than wealth or birth.
All male church members have a vote. But a man may only become a church member on the invitation of those already enjoying this exalted status. Since God's approval is not to be devalued, his elect remain a minority in each community.
The Massachusetts system proves an extremely efficient way of settling new territory.
A community, granted a tract of land by Winthrop and his governing body in Boston, immediately becomes responsible for making a success of the new enterprise - building a church and houses while bringing the surrounding land into cultivation.
Standards of education and literacy are high in the colony the university of Harvard is founded as early as The appeal of Massachusetts proves so great that in the first eleven years, tosome 20, settlers arrive from England.
In subsequent decades, as the population grows and colonization extends further afield, regions evolve into separate colonies. Connecticut emerges inand New Hampshire in In a reverse process, the original settlement of Plymouth becomes absorbed within Massachusetts in Vermont and Maine remain part of Massachusetts until and respectively.
Rhode Island is an exception within New England, going its own way very early from because of the religious intolerance in self-righteous Massachusetts. It is founded by Roger Williams, a clergyman banished by the Boston authorities for his radical views. Williams establishes the town of Providence on land which he buys from the Indians itself a novelty among English settlers. He welcomes persecuted sects, such as Anabaptists and Quakersand turns Rhode Island into a haven of tolerance.
In this respect the small colony prefigures Pennsylvania. But meanwhile New England's immediate neighbour to the south and west attracts English attention. This region is being colonized by the Dutch.
Now, ina party of thirty families is sent out to establish a colony. They make their first permanent settlement at Albany, calling it Fort Orange. In Peter Minuit is appointed governor of the small colony.
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He purchases the island of Manhattan from Indian chiefs, and builds a fort at its lower end. He names the place New Amsterdam.
The Dutch company finds it easier to make money by piracy than by the efforts of colonists the capture of the Spanish silver fleet off Cuba in yields vast profitsbut the town of New Amsterdam thrives as an exceptionally well placed seaport - even though administered in a harshly authoritarian manner by a succession of Dutch governors.
The only weakness of New Amsterdam is that it is surrounded by English colonies to the north and south of it. Deneen, In other words, the United States is exceptional because Americans believe it to be exceptional. This underlies the idea that in every foreigner there is an American waiting to get out. Bush and their mission to reform the world in the American image. To understand the geographical claims of European nations in colonial North America Within 93 years after the first permanent British colony was settled in North America inthe Spanish, French, Dutch, and British were deeply involved in the great race for empire.
Colonization and the creation of empires had become common place by the early s. Spain - The first Spaniards to arrive in the "New World" - the conquistadores - were interested in getting rich.
And for years, they were quite successful. Beginning in the s, the mines in Spanish America yielded more than 10 times as much gold and silver as the rest of the world's mines put together. These riches made Spain for a time the wealthiest and most powerful nation on earth. France - The French had established a strong trading colony in Quebec, had built a strong inland empire for fur trading throughout the Mississippi River regions, and had several settlements along important water routes.
Netherlands - Bythe Dutch were firmly entrenched in the trading economy in New Netherlands The British, then, were among the last of the great European powers to gain colonial influence in North America. As the map below of world colonization by the mids indicates, Spain and France had a much greater foothold in the Americas than the English.
But remember, during the entire period of English colonization tothe vast majority of America was populated by American Indians. Thus, it was not the European influences that were strongest in the s - it was the Indian influence. So, why did James I seek a geographical claim to North America? First, you will remember that England was recovering from over a decade-long war with Spain. And even though the English were victorious, they needed a way to boast their economy.
What better way than to have a colony rich with natural resources to exploit? Second, England had a serious surplus population and not enough food to feed them or prisons to house them. Third, England wanted to expand their empire - and because they were late to the game of empire, they claimed "new" land where they hoped to find rich resources.
British History, 8: Government in the 18th C.
Fourth, the King had an economic motive based upon a new concept of economics - which brings us to our third goal for today. To examine the new economic model for the development of the English colonies The New Economic Model for Colonizing British North America - Mercantilism, Corporations, and Capitalism The idea of mercantilism was that the nation, not the individuals within it, was the principal actor in the economy.
The goal of the economy, then, should be to increase the nation's wealth. Merchants believed that the world's wealth was finite and that one nation could only grow rich at the expanse of another. Therefore, the nation's economic health was dependent upon merchants who extracted and imported wealth from foreign lands while exporting very little wealth from home. Some merchants joined forces and formed chartered companies - or corporations. To meet their needs, merchants sought assistance from the king who, in turn, benefited from the expansion of corporations.
Each corporation acquired a charter from the King. The charter gave the corporation a monopoly on trading in a particular region. Thus, the goal of both the English king and the financial backers - those who owned the corporations - was to make money. The corporate colonies, therefore, were ventures in capitalism - that is, they were based on an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods are privately or corporately owned and developed.
To study the characteristics of the early colonists Characteristics of the First Colonists Most were young - over half were 25 years and under. Almost half were either indentured servants or slaves. Very few were wealthy and most were of the "middling sort" - neither very rich nor very poor. While all knew they could not immediately own land in many of the North America colonies, they knew they had a chance to improve their economic and social standings in a way that they could never accomplish in Europe.
The vast majority were English, Scot, and Irish. Most worshiped in the Anglican Church; a smaller number were Calvinists. These characteristics remain largely the same throughout much of the colonial era, with three exceptions: Larger numbers of women arrive. More convicts arrive after the British Transportation Act of - about 50, convicts were shipped to the colonies, largely for non-capital offenses against property.
This number is far less than theconvict men and 24, convict women transported to Australia after the Americas outlawed transportation in After the Protestant Reformation, the biggest religious debate was about the proper way for a Christian to gain access to the will of God.
For Catholics and more conservative Protestants, the traditions of the church contained valid, time-honored additions to what was found in the Bible. For the Puritans, the church had been corrupted through centuries of greed and abuse. If something was not in the scriptures, it was a man-made distortion of what God intended. Began their congregations with a covenant a term they took from the Bible between a group of believers and God.
In turn, each congregation elected their ministers, all of whom were university-trained and who could be voted out by the congregation. Believed that ever since the fall when Adam broke his covenant of works with God, man had been deserving of perpetual damnation.
God had since made a covenant with Christ and upon fulfillment of that covenant, offered grace to a small minority of people known as the Saints. Believed that because the identity of the Saints had long since been determined by God predestinationthere was nothing anyone could do to win salvation.
No one could be entirely sure about who was one of the elect, but if a person was saved, he or she naturally lived a godly life. Thus, their conduct might indicate whether or not they were saved.
Recognized states by which he or she might experience knowledge of redemption: Excommunicated members of the congregation if they strayed from the true path and failed to correct themselves. Both Puritans and Separatists were Never sure where they stood in the eyes of God which contributed to constant introspection and the desire to achieve.
Subject to an essential tension between their inward, spiritual lives - am I serving God or am I going to hell - and their outward, secular lives - I need to make more money and I can only do that by focusing on material means. To explore the governance, economy, and social structure created during the 17th Century within each of three British colonial regions: Additionally, the governance, economy, and social structure of each developed around the geographical realities of each colony.
In turn, these geographical realities led to the gradual formation of three regional groups of colonies. The New England Colonies.
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The New England colonies experienced much independence from Britain during their early years. By the s - when all of the New England colonies were under control of the Crown - each colony still retained much control through two vehicles: Central governments, which were representative and responsive to the needs of the majority, and consisted of a governor and bicameral legislature.
Officials were annually elected by white, free men who were church members and had sought salvation. Local government town meetings where all white male Church members who owned property gathered regularly to consensually decide matters of local importance. The geography was hilly and mountainous with many rivers and densely-timbered forests; the soil was rocky. The climate was the coldest within all three colonial regions because it is so far north; it had long, harsh winters and the shortest growing season.
The abundant natural resources included fish, whales, trees, and furs. New England's society was Hierarchical - prominent families owned best land; inequality was God's will. Homogeneous - mostly white. Structured around Religious beliefs and values - religion determined social structure and maintained social order in a community where church and state closely related.
Calvinist religions thrived throughout New England. In every colony but Rhode Island, civil law required every settler to attend worship services on the Sabbath and every taxpayer to contribute to the support of the clergy.
Characterized by clustered settlements which encouraged the growth of strong vital communities and a rigorous sense of local order. Composed of four groups: Small, family run farms and small household manufacturing endeavors.
Farmland - typically acres per family - consisted of fields adjacent to the clustered dwellings in town. Self sufficient families who lived in clustered town dwellings.
Small towns surrounded by adjacent fields. The farm economy was rigidly controlled by division of labor within the family: The reliance upon family farming meant little need for servants or slaves. Manufacturing and exporting their natural resources The Middle Colonies. The middle colonies experienced diverse settlement. By the s, the English divided their territory into three chartered colonies: New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
Delaware was an unchartered colony until it became a state in The geography included flat land with rich soil, coastal plains that spread to the Appalachian foothills, and many navigable waters The climate was milder than New England allowing for a longer growing season The abundant natural resources included timber, fur, and rich farmland. The Middle Colonies' society was Multiculture and very diverse - people from many parts of Europe and Africa lived in the Middle Colonies.
The middle colonies were the most diverse and multicultural of the three regions. The population was culturally, linguistically, and spiritually diverse. People lived in small settlements throughout the colonies which encouraged the growth of small towns run by county governments.
Somewhat equal for white men - almost every white, adult male owned land Diverse in religious beliefs and cultural values. People in the Middle Colonies displayed more tolerance than the other two regions. Commercial enterprises with small farmers growing diversified crops and craftsmen and merchants providing many services and resources. By the s, the Dutch had created a strong commercial economy throughout the Hudson valley and the Swedes had created an independent fur-trading community in the Delaware River Valley.
Hard working small farmers, craftsmen, and merchants. Manufacturing which included iron ore products - tools, kettles, nails and plows. Trade that included exported agricultural products and natural resources and imported European manufactured goods. The geography of the Southern colonies included rivers with deep water estuaries and natural ocean ports.
The geographyof the lower southern colonies included broad, coastal plains with rich soil. The climate was the warmest within all three colonial regions, and it allowed for the longest growing season within the three colonial regions - 7 months. The natural resources included rich farmland and fish. The Southern Colonies' society was Biracial - primarily white and black. Unequal - social, economic, and political inequality.
The minority of European colonists consisted of free men and women; the majority consisted of laborers: Hierarchical and socially stratified according to wealth as dictated by English tradition: Composed of five groups: The Southern Colonies' economy was characterized by: Single crop economy - profitable, single crop farms growing tobacco, indigo, rice, hemp, and later on, cotton. Rural areas with sparse settlements Export of agricultural goods Goal 6: To take an indepth exploration of three colonies - Jamestown in the south, Pennsylvania in the Middle, and Massachusetts in New England - and one of the most unusual of all the colonies - Georgia Jamestown Chronology Original maps of Jamestown http: Any "adventurer" who could pay 12 lbs, 10 shillings could purchase stock.
The Company hopes to increase its profits in this corporate venture. According to the first historian of the Virginia Colony, "The chief Design of all Parties concern'd was to fetch away the Treasure from thence, aiming more at sudden Gain, than to form any regular Colony.
In December, men and boys leave England on three boats: Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery. One person perished on the trip. Upon arrival, the written instructions of the Virginia Company decrees the colonists "were not permitted to manure or till any ground.
In June, the first fort is finished, a "triangle-wise having three bulwarks at every corner like a half-moon, and four or five pieces of artillery mounted in them. This is a drawing of James Fort c. The sketch shows a flag-like projection which is more probably an enclosed garden. The three sides and circular bastions at the corners are common to all three descriptions of the early fort. The two dots are most likely guard outposts. Mid-year, one settler, who is named "JR" by late 20th Century archeologists, dies under mysterious circumstances.
Full skeletal remains were found located within the first wooden palisade, indicating this young man died within a few months after arriving in May He had a lead bullet embedded in his lower leg. Painstaking investigation indicates he was shot at fairly close range and died of the injury. We know from the diaries of John Smith and John Percy that a great deal of civil unrest existed from the wretched living conditions, the disappointment that the settler were not going to get rich, hunger, and disease - so it is clear he died at the hands of a fellow settler.
Colonists meet Powhatan, the leader of the united Powhatan Indian confederacy in the area. By the fall, 67 of the original settlers are dead. Smith begins to train volunteers to fight "amongst the trees" against any native attackers.
Skirmishes between the Powhatans and the colonists began on a regular basis. Kidnappings and prisoner exchanges become more common. Smith leads the first colonial offensive in Virginia and destroys a series of native towns and canoes along the James River.
In April, supplies and between new colonists arrive from England. In the fall, the first women arrive in Jamestown. By the following year, about English women lived in Jamestown.
The men were in Jamestown for over a year before an English woman arrived, two years before a significant number arrived. Although there are no official marriages recorded between the English and native women, a Spanish visitor reported in that as many as " First, the colonists must find something in Virginia of major value gold, passage to the Pacific, or the lost Roanoke Colony ; and second, Captain Newport was to place an English crown on Chief Powhatan's head thus rendering him a loyal prince of King James.
Newport attempts to carry out the coronation, but once Powhatan realizes that the crown means subjugation to the English king, he forbids his people to bargain with the English for food. Thus, the colonists face winter without the necessary grain they needed to survive. The "Starving Time" begins. Supplies are low, nobody had planted enough corn to last through the winter, and there is not enough to eat. They turn to eating "doggs, Catts Ratts and myce" and some resort to boiling boot leather.
Conditions are so desperate that one man "did kill his wife, powdered her, and had eaten part of her" before leaders discover his actions and have him executed.How 156 years of British rule shaped Hong Kong
At the beginning of the year, colonists live in Jamestown; by the year's end, 60 survive. Those who do survive are "so Leane that they looked Lyke Anotamies Cyreing owtt we are starved We are starved In June, the small number of survivors abandon Jamestown, only to meet the new governor, Lord Delaware, who orders them back, provides provisions to reinvigorate the colony, and places all colonists under martial law until the end of the year. Argall offers her freedom in exchange for English prisoners held by Powhatan.
Pocahontas is held first in Jamestown and then in other Virginia settlements where she becomes educated in the Christian faith. Rolfe cross-pollinates Indian tobacco with seeds brought over from England to make a sweeter tobacco that suits the taste of Europeans. He begins sending tobacco to England. Rolfe takes Pocahontas and their young son, Thomas, to England.
Seven months later, in March on the voyage home, Pocahontas dies, possibly of pneumonia. The ship returns to England and Pocahontas is buried in a churchyard in Gravesend. Most have trades - especially in the lumber, glass, and pottery services. Virginia colonists export 18, pounds of tobacco to England.