Terrestrial planet - Wikipedia
(2) “Mass-Radius Relation for Rocky Planets based on PREM”. The data of exoplanets are largely taken from the NASA Exoplanet Archive Curves show models of different compositions, with solid indicating single composition (Fe, . form of water (wikipedia link), which has properties of both a solid and a liquid, where. the mass-radius relationships of solid exoplanets, considering planets made We find that the mass-radius relationships for cold terrestrial-mass planets of all We propose a definition of "super Earths'' based on the clear. Scales indicate (log10 of) planetary mass, m, expressed as Earth masses " Mass-radius relationships for solid exoplanets". . Usage on pdl-inc.info
In JuneEuropean researchers announced the discovery of three super-Earths around the star HDa star that is only slightly less massive than our Sun.
The planets have at least the following minimum masses: This star also has a Jupiter-like planet that orbits every three years. The density estimate obtained for COROT-7b points to a composition including rocky silicate minerals, similar to the four inner planets of the Solar System, a new and significant discovery. It was at the time the smallest extrasolar planet discovered around a normal star and the closest in mass to Earth. Being at an orbital distance of just 0.Exoplanets: The Quest for Strange New Worlds (live public talk)
On 24 August, astronomers using ESO's HARPS instrument announced the discovery of a planetary system with up to seven planets orbiting a Sun-like star, HDone of which, although not yet confirmed, has an estimated minimum mass of 1. The planet has a minimum mass 3. It was discovered using the radial velocity method by scientists at the University of California at Santa Cruz and the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
 Mass-Radius Relationships for Solid Exoplanets
This is compensated for however, as the star, with a spectral type G5V is slightly dimmer than the Sun G2Vand thus the surface temperatures would still allow liquid water on its surface. On 5 Decemberthe Kepler team announced that they had discovered 2, planetary candidates, of which are similar in size to Earth, are super-Earth-size, 1, are Neptune-size, are Jupiter-size and 55 are larger than Jupiter. Moreover, 48 planet candidates were found in the habitable zones of surveyed stars, marking a decrease from the February figure; this was due to the more stringent criteria in use in the December data.
Artist's impression of 55 Cancri e in front of its parent star.
At the size of about 2 Earth radii, it was the largest planet until which was determined to lack a significant hydrogen atmosphere.
More detailed data on Gliese Cc were published in early February These new super-Earths have radii of 1.
Theoretical modelling of two of these super-Earths, Keplere and Keplerfsuggests both could be solid, either rocky or rocky with frozen water. They are part of a cluster of as many as seven planets that circle Gliese Cone of three stars located a relatively close 22 light years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpio, it said.
The planets orbit Gliese C in the so-called Goldilocks Zone — a distance from the star at which the temperature is just right for water to exist in liquid form rather than being stripped away by stellar radiation or locked permanently in ice. With the radius of 2. Three of the newly confirmed exoplanets were found to orbit within habitable zones of their related stars: The four-planet system, dubbed HDhad been found 21 light years from Earth in the M-shaped northern hemisphere of constellation Cassiopeiabut it is not in the habitable zone of its star.
The planet with the shortest orbit is HD band is Earth's closest known rocky, and transiting, exoplanet. In Januarythe existence of a hypothetical super-Earth-mass ninth planet in the Solar System, referred to as Planet Ninewas proposed as an explanation for the orbital behavior of six trans-Neptunian objectsbut it is speculated to be instead an ice giant like Uranus or Neptune.
A super-Earth's interior could be undifferentiated, partially differentiated, or completely differentiated into layers of different composition.
Researchers at Harvard Astronomy Department have developed user-friendly online tools to characterize the bulk composition of the super-Earths. Within this range of radii the super-Earth Gliese d would have a surface gravity between 1.
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However, this planet is not known to transit its host star. The limit between rocky planets and planets with a thick gaseous envelope is calculated with theoretical models. Optical albedo decreases with increasing mass, because higher-mass giant planets have higher surface gravities, which produces lower cloud-column depths. Also, elliptical orbits can cause major fluctuations in atmospheric composition, which can have a significant effect. So, although optical brightness is fully phase -dependent, this is not always the case in the near infrared.
Lowering the temperature increases optical albedo even without clouds.
At a sufficiently low temperature, water clouds form, which further increase optical albedo. At even lower temperatures ammonia clouds form, resulting in the highest albedos at most optical and near-infrared wavelengths.
It is the first indirect detection of a magnetic field on an exoplanet. The magnetic field is estimated to be about one tenth as strong as Jupiter's. Compounds may form with greater viscosities and high melting temperatures which could prevent the interiors from separating into different layers and so result in undifferentiated coreless mantles.
Forms of magnesium oxide such as MgSi3O12 could be a liquid metal at the pressures and temperatures found in super-Earths and could generate a magnetic field in the mantles of super-Earths. This could be caused by the interaction between the stellar wind and the planet's magnetosphere creating an electric current through the planet that heats it up causing it to expand.
The more magnetically active a star is the greater the stellar wind and the larger the electric current leading to more heating and expansion of the planet. This theory matches the observation that stellar activity is correlated with inflated planetary radii.
This may help researchers better understand giant gas planetssuch as JupiterSaturn and related exoplanets, since such planets are thought to contain a lot of liquid metallic hydrogen, which may be responsible for their observed powerful magnetic fields.