Confessions of 'General' John Togo - Vanguard News Nigeria
Islam reached Togo about the same time as it did in much of West Africa. Ahmadu Tito, Federation's secretary-general, said that the Muslims have A person who began applying this said he wished the prayer would never end. Some people's relationship with Allah is limited to following orders and. “General” John Togo, a secondary school dropout, regarded by many as a . and , if at the end of the day, it is acceptable to NDLF, I promised him I will turn . Tell us the relationship between them from your own experience. Also in attendance were the Chief of General Staff Read More». By U.S. Embassy Lome | 15 October, | Topics: Ambassador, embassy, Events, News.
The highest elevation is Mt. To the north and west of these hills, the Oti River drains in a southwesterly direction into the Volta River, which constitutes a part of the upper boundary with Ghana.
Muslims playing active role in Togo | Arab News
To the north of the Oti River Valley lies gently undulating savanna country. From the southern spurs of the central hills, a plateau stretches gradually southward to a coastal plain. The coastline consists of a flat sandy beach thickly planted with coconut trees and partially separated from the mainland by lagoons and lakes that are the former estuaries of several rivers.
In the south there are two rainy seasons, from March to early July and in September and October. The heaviest rainfall occurs in the hills of the west, southwest, and center, where the precipitation averages about cm 60 in a year. North of the Togo Mountains there is one rainy season, lasting from April to August.
Rainfall in this region averages cm 40 in a year. The coast gets the least rainfall, about 78 cm 31 in annually. Dense belts of reeds are found along the coastal lagoons.
Much of the largest wildlife has been exterminated in the southern area, but in the north, elephants and lions still can be found. Hippopotamuses and crocodiles live in and along the rivers, and monkeys are fairly common.
The coastal swamps abound in snakes. As ofthere were at least species of mammals, species of birds, and over 3, species of plants throughout the country.
Slash-and-burn agriculture and the cutting of wood for fuel are the major causes of forest depletion. Between andTogo lost an average of 3. Soils are generally of poor quality, requiring intensive fertilization and cultivation to be productive.
The soil and water supply are threatened by pesticides and fertilizers. The nation's land is also threatened by desertification. Contamination of the water supply contributes to the spread of disease. Responsibility in environmental matters is vested in the Ministry of Rural Development and the Ministry of Environment and Tourism. The government of Togo has tried to protect the nation's environment through a comprehensive legislative package, the Environmental Code of As of7.
The nation's wildlife population is at risk due to poaching and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes. According to a report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources IUCNthe number of threatened species included 7 types of mammals, 2 species of birds, 2 types of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 8 species of fish, and 10 species of plants. Threatened species included the African elephantDiana monkey, and West African manatee.
There were 98 males for every females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for — was expected to be 2. The projected population for the year was 9, The population density was per sq km per sq miwith density greatest in the south, exceeding per sq km per sq mi in some areas.
The number of AIDS orphans increased by 17, from — The AIDS epidemic causes higher death and infant mortality rates, and lowers life expectancy. Members of the Ewe group migrate to and from Ghana.When To End A Relationship Know When To Stay And When To Go
Formerly, an estimatedworkers went to Ghana from Togo each year, but because of Ghana's declining economy, this number has probably decreased. Some of the aliens expelled from Nigeria in were Togolese; moreover, Togo suffered the disruptive effect of the hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians who returned home from Nigeria via the Togolese coastal roads. Foreign refugees in Togo, including Ewe dissidents in exile from Ghana, are entitled to employment and free medical treatment, although they retain the status of aliens.
The total number of migrants in Togo in wasincluding refugees. As ofthere were 11, refugees, including 11, Ghanaian refugees in northern Togo, and asylum seekers, and returned refugees. Inthe net migration rate was estimated as zero migrants per 1, population.
This was a significant change from The government views the migration levels as satisfactory. About 40 tribal groups comprise a mosaic of peoples of distinct languages and histories. As elsewhere in Africa, political and ethnic boundaries do not coincide.
Despite Togo's complex ethnic, linguistic, and racial makeup, a major distinction can be made between the tribes of Sudanic origin that inhabit the northern regions and those of the true Negroid Bantu type found in the south.
In northern Togo, Hausa is also widely spoken. Pidgin English and French are used widely in the principal trading towns. In all, more than 44 different languages and dialects are spoken in Togo. Most of the Muslims live in the central and northern parts of the country, while Christians are found primarily in the south.
The government requires registration of religious groups, but this involves a fairly easy process and no applications have been rejected outright. The constitution provides for freedom of religion and this right is generally respected in practice. Certain Muslim and Christian holidays are celebrated as national holidays. Because of extreme variations in weather, the roads that are not paved require constant attention. During the dry seasonthey are very dusty and crack easily, but during the rainy season they become extremely muddy and are frequently washed out.
Inthere were 97, passenger cars and 43, commercial vehicles. An km mi spur goes to Tabligbo. The rail system is operated by Chemin de Fer Togolais. A small merchant-shipping fleet was created in as a joint venture with the FRG.
History of Togo - Wikipedia
As ofTogo's navigable inland waterways consisted of a 50 km 31 mi stretch of the Mono River, in which navigation is seasonal and dependent upon rainfall.
There were an estimated nine airports inonly two of which had paved runways as of Inabout 46, passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international airline flights. HISTORY Between the 12th and the 18th century, the Ewe, Adja, and related peoples, who now constitute a majority of the population of southern Togo and adjoining Ghana, came to this area from the Niger River Valley as a result of pressure from the east.
Portuguese sailors visited the coast in the 15th and 16th centuries. The French established trading posts at Petit Popo in and again inbut abandoned them each time. German traders came to Grand Popo as early asbut did not arrive in significant numbers until Germany finally established control over the area, its first African acquisition, on 5 Julywhen Dr. The treaty established a German protectorate over a small coastal enclave, and the village name eventually was given to the entire territory.
Boundary delimitations with the British and French were made in and As the Germans extended their control to the north, they built roads and railroads and established administrative, legal, economic, educational, and other institutions.
In a provisional arrangement, the British took the coastal area and the railways, and the French assumed control of the interior. League of Nations mandates were established in Beginning inleaders of the Ewe people repeatedly petitioned the UN first for Ewe unification and subsequently for Togoland unification. At the time, the Ewe were under three different administrations: For nine years thereafter, the Togoland question was before the UN. Its resolution was difficult not only because of the resistance of the British and French governments to the Ewe demands, but also because both the Ewe and non-Ewe of the two Togolands were deeply divided on the form self-determination should take.
The problem was partially resolved by a plebiscite held in British Togoland on 9 May under UN supervision. Koffigoh then formed a second transition government in January with substantial participation by ministers from the President's party. Opposition leader Gilchrist Olympioson of the slain president Sylvanus Olympio, was ambushed and seriously wounded apparently by soldiers on 5 May In July and Augusta commission composed of presidential and opposition representatives negotiated a new political agreement.
On 27 September, the public overwhelmingly approved the text of a new, democratic constitution, formally initiating Togo's fourth republic. Powerless legislature and political violence[ edit ] The democratic process was set back in Octoberwhen elements of the army held the interim legislature hostage for 24 hours. This effectively put an end to the interim legislature.
This set off public demonstrations, and, on 25 January, members of the security forces fired on peaceful demonstrators, killing at least In the ensuing days, several security force members were waylaid and injured or killed by civilian oppositionists.
Although most had returned by earlysome still remain abroad. They inflicted significant casualties, however, which set off lethal reprisals by the military against soldiers thought to be associated with the attackers.
History of Togo
Negotiating with the opposition[ edit ] Under substantial domestic and foreign pressure and the burden of the general strike, the presidential faction entered negotiations with the opposition in early Four rounds of talks led to the 11 July Ouagadougou agreement setting forth conditions for upcoming presidential and legislative elections and ending the general strike as of 3 August The presidential elections were set for 25 August, but hasty and inadequate technical preparations, concerns about fraud, and the lack of effective campaign organization by the opposition led the chief opposition candidates—former minister and Organization of African Unity Secretary General Edem Kodjo and lawyer Yawovi Agboyibo —to drop out of the race before election day and to call for a boycott.
The government went ahead with legislative elections on 6 February and 20 February In generally free and fair polls as witnessed by international observers, the allied opposition parties UTD and CAR together won a narrow majority in the National Assembly. Kodjo's acceptance of the post of prime minister provoked the CAR to break the opposition alliance and refuse to join the Kodjo government.
Kodjo was then forced to form a governing coalition with the RPT. Kodjo's government emphasized economic recovery, building democratic institutions and the rule of law and the return of Togolese refugees abroad.
In earlythe government made slow progress toward its goals, aided by the CAR's August decision to end a 9-month boycott of the National Assembly. In the June presidential election, the government prevented citizens from effectively exercising the right to vote. Although the government did not obstruct the functioning of political opponents openly, the President used the strength of the military and his government allies to intimidate and harass citizens and opposition groups.
The government and the state remained highly centralized: However, the opposition boycotted the electionin which the ruling party won 79 of the 81 seats in the National Assembly. Those two seats went to candidates from little-known independent parties. Procedural problems and significant fraud, particularly misrepresentation of voter turnout marred the legislative elections.
After the legislative election, the government announced that it would continue to pursue dialog with the opposition. The accord also called for the negotiation of a legal status for opposition leaders, as well as for former heads of state such as their immunity from prosecution for acts in office.
But the Federal Government refused bluntly under the leadership of one of our sons and brother, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan. We were having every hope that a government being run by one of our own may have been soft in dealing with Niger Delta issues by convening the post-amnesty conference, Mr.
It is that forum the Niger Delta ex-militants through our delegation will tell government our grievances. And, the Ijaw have only one state, Bayelsa, with eight local government areas. What a great injustice! Again, it is at the post-amnesty conference that we will deliberate under a democratic setting the distribution formula of oil and gas wealth in this country.
The issue of rapid development is also paramount. We are all aware that Abuja and other places were developed not through agencies. If some of these things I have highlighted are implemented, then it will be difficult for recurrence of arms agitation in the future.
What is peace to you? Is it by bribing few miscreants who were various leaders of repentant militants? We are now beginning to understand that even Mr. We are getting that fact that there are different cabals in Aso Rock, which dictate the tune of the pipe and we are all unlucky dancers of naivety with the sound not exactly from the conscience of the drummer or the piper.
If not, what should have prompted Mr. President to label us criminals over our mere call to convene a post-amnesty conference to accomplish his former boss dream for the Niger Delta?
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Why did you not reach out to your ex-militant colleagues such as Tompolo, Boyloaf, Ateke Tom to reach the government people on your behalf if you did not get their ears? I consulted so many of my colleagues.
I agreed with them to some extent. If we fight President Jonathan, then we are fighting ourselves and the future generation of Niger Delta. We are interested in how Jonathan could win the election so that he may be there to implement the issues arrived at the post-amnesty conference with us.
It is the turn of our son to be democratically elected president to rule this nation, rule the oil revenue of Niger Delta people. A large percentage of ex-militants are unhappy with you for returning to the creeks and are ready to join forces with government to smoke you out.
Why are you so disgusting to them? Forget about ex-militants, we know ourselves in the Niger Delta arms struggle. When they joined JTF to kill me and my boys, they saw the result. He spoke to me as a father and not as an army general.
And, I promised him that if he is sincere as he sounded on the phone, I would direct my boys not to carry out any attack until the government comes out with a proposal, and, if at the end of the day, it is acceptable to NDLF, I promised him I will turn down all my arms and come back from the creek.
Tell us what happened when you were arrested before and clamped in detention. What was your alleged offence and how did you come out, are saying that those who want to use you facilitated your release and you are now a trouble to the society? All my boys know how to pray.
The only experience I can share with you during my detention days is that it turned me into a good Christian and it drew me closer to God. I have been made to know that if you are for God, nothing will harm you. JTF had declared you wanted and destroyed Ayakoromor community. How do you feel being on the wanted list of JTF when you could have avoided it and destruction of your community?
Being on JTF wanted list is not a big deal. What is important is the purpose or cause behind it.