Reformation - Wikipedia
For contemporaries, Münster and its bloody end was an argument for of a marriage between a Catholic princess and a Protestant king. The Reformation was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued The Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation, initiated by the . rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, and Some , peasants were killed by the end of the war. The beginning and later growth of the Protestant Reformation of the 16 th century . with his Theses while calling for an immediate end to the work of the indulgence sellers. . In , Henry VIII looked to have his marriage to Catherine.
Luther was gravely concerned about the way in which getting into heaven was connected with a financial transaction. But the sale of indulgences was not Luther's only disagreement with the institution of the Church.
Faith Alone Martin Luther was very devout and had experienced a spiritual crisis.
He concluded that no matter how "good" he tried to be, no matter how he tried to stay away from sin, he still found himself having sinful thoughts. He was fearful that no matter how many good works he did, he could never do enough to earn his place in heaven remember that, according to the Catholic Church, doing good works, for example commissioning works of art for the Church, helped one gain entrance to heaven.
This was a profound recognition of the inescapable sinfulness of the human condition. After all, no matter how kind and good we try to be, we all find ourselves having thoughts which are unkind and sometimes much worse. Luther found a way out of this problem when he read St. Paul, who wrote "The just shall live by faith" Romans 1: Luther understood this to mean that those who go to heaven the just will get there by faith alone - not by doing good works.
In other words, God's grace is something freely given to human beings, not something we can earn. For the Catholic Church on the other hand, human beings, through good works, had some agency in their salvation.
Scripture Alone Luther and other reformers turned to the Bible as the only reliable source of instruction as opposed to the teachings of the Church. The invention of the printing press in the middle of the 15th century by Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany together with the translation of the Bible into the vernacular the common languages of French, Italian, German, English, etc. Before this time, the Bible was available in Latin, the ancient language of Rome spoken chiefly by the clergy.
Before the printing press, books were handmade and extremely expensive. The invention of the printing press and the translation of the bible into the vernacular meant that for the first time in history, the Bible was available to those outside of the Church.
Catholic and Protestant leaders unite to mark start of Reformation
And now, a direct relationship to God, unmediated by the institution of the Catholic Church, was possible. When Luther and other reformers looked to the words of the Bible and there were efforts at improving the accuracy of these new translations based on early Greek manuscriptsthey found that many of the practices and teachings of the Church about how we achieve salvation didn't match Christ's teaching.
This included many of the Sacraments, including Holy Communion also known as the Eucharist.
According to the Catholic Church, the miracle of Communion is transubstantiation - when the priest administers the bread and wine, they change the prefix "trans" means to change their substance into the body and blood of Christ. Luther denied that anything changed during Holy Communion.
Luther thereby challenged one of the central sacraments of the Catholic Church, one of its central miracles, and thereby one of the ways that human beings can achieve grace with God, or salvation.
- 1. The German Peasant’s War (1525)
- 2. The end of the Kingdom of Münster (1536)
- Reformation and Counter-Reformation
The King's personal religious views, however, remained largely traditional. Bernard writes that Henry's religious policies were purposely ambiguous in order to foster religious compromise.
Cranmer also secretly married Osiander's niece.
The Protestant Reformation
Cranmer and Henry felt obliged to seek assistance from Strasbourg and Baselwhich brought him into contact with the more radical ideas associated with Huldrych Zwingli. In Januarythe King made Cromwell his vicegerent in spirituals. Effectively the King's vicar generalCromwell's authority was greater than that of bishops.
Even the Archbishop of Canterbury answered to Cromwell. He persuaded Henry that safety from political alliances that Rome might attempt to bring together lay in negotiations with the German Lutheran princes of the Schmalkaldic League. The negotiations did not lead to an alliance, but it brought Lutheran ideas to England.
This was followed by the Bishops' Book in These established a semi-Lutheran doctrine for the church. Justification by faith, qualified by an emphasis on good works following justification, was a core teaching.
Catholic and Protestant leaders unite to mark start of Reformation | World news | The Guardian
The traditional seven sacraments were reduced to three only— baptismEucharist and penance. Catholic teaching on praying to saintspurgatory and the use of images in worship was undermined. In Augustthe same month the Ten Articles were published, Cromwell issued a set of Royal Injunctions to the clergy. Inin one of the signal events of western history, Martin Luther, a German Augustinian monk, posted 95 theses on the church door in the university town of Wittenberg.
That act was common academic practice of the day and served as an invitation to debate. Further, Luther maintained that justification salvation was granted by faith alone; good works and the sacraments were not necessary in order to be saved. Luther had been especially appalled by a common church practice of the day, the selling of indulgences.
These papal documents were sold to penitents and promised them the remission of their sins. To Luther and other critics it appeared that salvation was for sale. Rome enthusiastically supported the use of indulgences as a means to raise money for a massive church project, the construction of St.