Myth of Leto, the mother of Apollo and Artemis - pdl-inc.info
They are named after their dwelling place Mount Olympus. Zeus; Poseidon; Hades; Hestia; Hera; Ares; Athena; Apollo; Aphrodite; Hermes; Artemis; Hephaestus. Artemis was the twin sister of Apollo. The goddess is decribed by Homer to be the daughter of Zeus and Leto. Her relationship with her brother, Apollo. When Zeus asked Artemis what presents she wanted for her third birthday she Artemis was not known to have had very satisfying relationships with men.
In anger for the unfairness towards her children, Leto turned them all into frogs.
The central fountain in the terrace garden of Versailles depicts this scene. The incident with Niobe Other sources say that after many years of wandering and when her children went to their father on Olympus to live as gods, Leto finally settled in Thebes to spend the rest of her life. There, Niobe, the arrogant queen of the city, once said that she was superior to Leto, because Niobe had given birth to fourteen children, seven male and seven female, instead of two.
Leto and her divine children were so insulted when they found out about this, that Apollo and Artemis took revenge, killing all fourteen of Niobe's children. When Niobe discovered what had happened, she burst in great grief. Indeed, Zeus turned her into a pillar of stone but people said that when they were passing by this pillar, they could see it weep tears.
The goddess of motherhood The cult of Leto was wide-spread all over Greece and Asia Minor for being the mother of two Gods. She was usually honoured and depicted in combination with her children. The origin of her name is not known. Some say that it means "unseen" and this makes a connection to her modesty, as in most Greek vases, she was depicted as a modest young woman lifting her veil to Zeus. Others suggest that her name derives from "lada", which was the Lycian word for woman. The bottom line however is that Leto was a very decent and respectful figure in Greek mythology and she was actually representing motherhood.
The river god Alpheus was in love with Artemis, but as he realizes that he can do nothing to win her heart, he decides to capture her.
Artemis, who is with her companions at Letrenoi, goes to Alpheus, but, suspicious of his motives, she covers her face with mud so that the river god does not recognize her. In another story, Alphaeus tries to rape Artemis' attendant Arethusa.
Artemis pities Arethusa and saves her by transforming Arethusa into a spring in Artemis' temple, Artemis Alphaea in Letrini, where the goddess and her attendant drink. Bouphagos, the son of the Titan Iapetus, sees Artemis and thinks about raping her.
Reading his sinful thoughts, Artemis strikes him at Mount Pholoe. Siproites is a boy, who, either because he accidentally sees Artemis bathing or because he attempts to rape her, is turned into a girl by the goddess. Actaeon Multiple versions of the Actaeon myth survive, though many are fragmentary. The details vary but at the core, they involve a great hunter, Actaeon who Artemis turns into a stag for a transgression and who is then killed by hunting dogs. Sometimes they are Artemis' hounds.
Literary and Iconographic Studies, the most likely original version of the myth is that Actaeon was the hunting companion of the goddess who, seeing her naked in her sacred spring, attempts to force himself on her. For this hubris, he is turned into a stag and devoured by his own hounds. However, in some surviving versions, Actaeon is a stranger who happens upon her. According to the Latin version of the story told by the Roman Ovid  having accidentally seen Artemis Diana on Mount Cithaeron while she was bathing, he was changed by her into a stag, and pursued and killed by his fifty hounds.
In some versions of the story of AdonisArtemis sent a wild boar to kill Adonis as punishment for his hubristic boast that he was a better hunter than her. In other versions, Artemis killed Adonis for revenge. In later myths, Adonis had been related as a favorite of Aphroditeand Aphrodite was responsible for the death of Hippolytuswho had been a favorite of Artemis. In yet another version, Adonis was not killed by Artemis, but by Ares, as punishment for being with Aphrodite. Orion Orion was Artemis' hunting companion.
In some versions, he is killed by Artemis, while in others he is killed by a scorpion sent by Gaia. In some versions, Orion tries to seduce Opis,  one of Artemis' followers, and she kills him. In a version by Aratus Orion takes hold of Artemis' robe and she kills him in self-defense.
In yet another version, Apollo sends the scorpion.
Greek and Roman Gods
According to Hyginus  Artemis once loved Orion in spite of the late source, this version appears to be a rare remnant of her as the pre-Olympian goddess, who took consorts, as Eos didbut was tricked into killing him by her brother Apollo, who was "protective" of his sister's maidenhood. They were aggressive, great hunters, and could not be killed unless they killed each other.
The growth of the Aloadae never stopped, and they boasted that as soon as they could reach heaven, they would kidnap Artemis and Hera and take them as wives. The gods were afraid of them, except for Artemis who captured a fine deer or in another version of the story, she changed herself into a doe and jumped out between them.
The Aloadae threw their spears and so mistakenly killed each other. As a companion of Artemis, she took a vow of chastity. Zeus appeared to her disguised as Artemis, or in some stories Apollo gained her confidence and took advantage of her or, according to Ovidraped her.
As a result of this encounter, she conceived a son, Arcas. Enraged, Hera or Artemis some accounts say both changed her into a bear. Arcas almost killed the bear, but Zeus stopped him just in time. Out of pity, Zeus placed Callisto the bear into the heavens, thus the origin of Callisto the Bear as a constellation.
Some stories say that he placed both Arcas and Callisto into the heavens as bears, forming the Ursa Minor and Ursa Major constellations.
Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis Artemis punished Agamemnon after he killed a sacred stag in a sacred grove and boasted that he was a better hunter than the goddess.
The seer Calchas advised Agamemnon that the only way to appease Artemis was to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. Artemis then snatched Iphigenia from the altar and substituted a deer. What had been cyclical with the Great Goddess becomes cut so that instead of being associated with the cycle of life, death, and regeneration, she becomes identified with the negative functions.
Metope from the Temple at Selinus c. Pegasus, the winged horse that sprang from the severed neck, is being held by Medusa. Perseus gave the head of Medusa to Athena who mounted it on her breastplate, the gorgoneion.
A comparison of one of the large number of representations of the story of Perseus Medusa from Archaic Greek art to the Minoan Snake Goddess illustrates the profound change that occurred with the supremacy of the Olympian Gods. A striking aspect of the Snake Goddess is her frontality combined with her hypnotic stare. The power of this stare was probably intended to strike the original viewers with intense religious feelings of of terror and awe.
This expression transcends categories of good and evil. On the other hand, it was the sight of the "terrible" visage of Medusa that would turn men into stone. The powerful gaze in the Minoan work becomes entirely negative and demonized and something to be overcome in the figure of Medusa. Perseus, the son of Zeus and the mortal Danae, slays Medusa with his sword, and thus he destroys the terrifying chthonic powers of the female for more on Medusa see the paper by Alicia Le Van.
The following excerpt from Bullfinch's Mythology illustrates how the demonization of Medusa persists into our modern imagination: Medusa was a terrible monster who had laid waste to the country. She was once a beautiful maiden whose hair was her chief glory, but as she dared to vie in beauty with Athena, the goddess deprived her of her charms and changed her beautiful ringlets into hissing serpents.
She became a cruel monster of so frightening an aspect that no living thing could behold her without being turned into stone.