Baseball - Wikipedia
Blair High Parents Confront Parks Officials Over Softball, Baseball on the softball team, said he's heard that the working relationship between. In baseball and softball, there is commonly a head umpire (also known as a plate umpire) who is in charge of. Diamond Sports signed an extension to serve as the Official Ball of the NPF through season will mark the 10th anniversary of the NPF/Diamond relationship. sports manufacturer specializing in baseball, softball, and football products.
Ina baseball instructional manual pointed out that every single pitch, of which there are often more than two hundred in a game, involves an individual, one-on-one contest: While coaching staffs can signal pitcher or batter to pursue certain tactics, the execution of the play itself is a series of solitary acts.
If the batter hits a line drive, the outfielder is solely responsible for deciding to try to catch it or play it on the bounce and for succeeding or failing. The statistical precision of baseball is both facilitated by this isolation and reinforces it. As described by Mandelbaum, It is impossible to isolate and objectively assess the contribution each [football] team member makes to the outcome of the play In baseball, by contrast, every player is more or less on his own Baseball is therefore a realm of complete transparency and total responsibility.
Comparison of baseball and softball
A baseball player lives in a glass house, and in a stark moral universe Everything that every player does is accounted for and everything accounted for is either good or bad, right or wrong. There is no statistical equivalent in cricket for the fielding error and thus less emphasis on personal responsibility in this area of play.
The Green Monster is visible beyond the playing field on the left. Unlike those of most sports, baseball playing fields can vary significantly in size and shape. The most famously idiosyncratic outfield boundary is the left-field wall at Boston's Fenway Parkin use since Thus a foul fly ball may be entirely out of play in a park with little space between the foul lines and the stands, but a foulout in a park with more expansive foul ground.
These variations can make the difference between a double and a triple or inside-the-park home run. While the adjacent image shows a traditional field surfacing arrangement and the one used by virtually all MLB teams with naturally surfaced fieldsteams are free to decide what areas will be grassed or bare.
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Surface variations can have a significant effect on how ground balls behave and are fielded as well as on baserunning. Similarly, the presence of a roof seven major league teams play in stadiums with permanent or retractable roofs can greatly affect how fly balls are played.
The area out-of-bounds on a football or soccer field does not affect play the way foul territory in baseball does, so variations in that regard are largely insignificant. However, most organizations will want to ensure that umpires can be trusted around children, will understand the game and its rules, and will be able to render judgments quickly and to stick by them.
Options Available Individuals who are interested in umpiring can begin their search for opportunities at the local level by looking up local Little League websites. Usually, these sites have a volunteer, coach or umpire recruiting page that provides information on getting started.
Some areas rely on umpires from third-party umpire associations that provide officiating services at all levels of baseball play in a state or area, including school and major league teams.
A visit to the association's website should provide the information needed to submit an application. Application Every Little League will have its own application process, but most will have an application available for download or online submission on their website.
Applicants should take note of deadlines: Baseball is a seasonal sport, so applications need to be processed before training begins. In addition to providing personal information, such as name, address, and phone number, applications may ask prospective umpires to provide information about scheduling preferences as well as a description of their knowledge of the game and previous experience as a coach, umpire or player.
From there, the Little League organization or umpiring association can make a determination about the level of play at which a new umpire can officiate. Background Check Because Little League umpires work with children and teenagers, most Little League organizations will require potential umpires to submit to a background check. Applicants might need to provide personal details, such as previous addresses, Social Security numbers and fingerprints as part of the review process.
Background checks can take awhile to complete, so applicants might want to take this timeline into consideration to ensure that they will be able to participate in the next upcoming season.
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In most cases, the purpose of a background check is to determine whether the umpire is a person of good character and can be trusted around children. Often, those reviewing the background check will be paying attention to whether the applicant has a criminal history, with a special focus on whether he has been arrested for or convicted of a crime involving minors or domestic violence.
Education and Training Little League organizations, as well as independent umpire associations, will expect umpires to complete a standard training program and, in many cases, ongoing continuing education. Training programs differ between organizations, but may include: Umpires may be required to review proprietary training manuals to ensure that they understand league rules and procedures.
These manuals will be provided by the league.
Umpire associations and Little League organizations may offer online courses that prospective and current umpires can take to measure and verify the umpires knowledge of regulations and sport rules.
Some associations and organizations work with third-party vendors that offer online training to sports officials. Periodically, Little League organizations and umpire associations sponsor in-person training clinics that provide training to umpires. Of course, the more experience and umpire gets, the better she can become at her job.
Eventually, she may be able to move into other baseball and softball leagues, including professional leagues. Umpires who want to move into intercollegiate and professional work should keep careful records of every game they work, as well as completion of training classes and clinics, so they can provide documentation of their experience to league and school officials.
Referee association footballAssistant referee association footballand Fourth official An association football soccer match is presided over by a referee, whom the Laws of the Game give "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" Law 5.
The referee is oftentimes assisted by two assistant refereesand sometimes by a fourth official.
In UEFA football 2 additional assistant referees are used, each one standing next to a goal post and directly behind the goal line, to watch for fouls occurring within the penalty area and to see if the ball enters the goal. Football Gaelic [ edit ] There are usually 7 officials in Gaelic football.
A main referee follows the play around the field and has the final authority on decisions such as fouls, throws and card-issuing, un-desputable by players. The main play referee is assisted by two linesmen, who make decisions on who gains possession when the ball goes out of the field of play, and can also advise the referee on off-the-ball events such as a fight or an illegal tackle.
As well as the referee and two linesmen, there are two umpires at each end of the field of play who stand on either side of the goal post and raise a white flag for a point, or a green flag for a goal respectively, also calling wides and square-balls.
An umpire can also advise the referee on off-the-ball incidents, but does not hold as much authority as a linesman. In recent times, technology called 'Hawk-eye' can be used if both the umpires and referee are unsure of whether a point has been scored or not, though this technology is not widely available.
Golf[ edit ] Golf is often played without referees.
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They are assisted by a timekeeper and a scorekeeper. Hurling[ edit ] There are usually 7 officials in hurling. As well as the referee and two linesmen, there are two umpires at each end of the field of play who stand on either side of the goal post and raise a white flag for a point, or a green flag for a goal respectively, also calling wides.
Any umpire can also advise the referee on off-the-ball incidents, but does not hold as much authority as a linesman. In recent times, technology called 'Hawk-eye' can be used if both the umpires and referee are unsure of whether a point has been scored or not, although this technology is not widely available. Official ice hockey Games of ice hockey are presided over by on-ice referees, who are generally assisted by on-ice linesmen.
The combination of referees and linesman varies from league to league. A few leagues, including the NCAA, are starting to refer to linesmen as assistant referees. In addition, off-ice officials administer to specific functions such as goal judge, penalty timekeeper, game timekeeper, statistician, official scorer and, at the highest professional levels, instant replay official.
Korfball[ edit ] In korfballit is the referee's responsibility to control the game and its environment, to enforce the rules and to take action against misbehaviour. He is assisted by an assistant referee, who alerts the referee to out balls and fouls and may have other tasks determined by the referee, and where possible by a timekeeper and scorer.
Lacrosse[ edit ] A lacrosse match is presided over by a crew of either two, three, or in some cases four on-field officials. In two-man crew, a Referee and an Umpire are utilized. In a three-man crew, a Referee, Umpire, and Field Judge are utilized. The Referee shall always have the final ruling on any and all matters. For games of significance a four-man crew can be used which includes a three-man crew plus a Chief Bench Official who has jurisdiction over the bench area including the timekeeper.
The professional outdoor league in the United States utilizes four on-field officials in order to be able to better keep up with the increased pace of play. Lawn bowls[ edit ] A lawn bowls match is presided over by a bowls umpire or technical official.