The woman who charmed Nietzsche, Freud and Rilke… - Aleph
Just a sample of what shows up in PsycInfo using Freud Nietzsche in the search terms for Freud's relationship to Nietzsche: Some preliminary considerations. Another important influence on both Nietzsche and Freud was Ernst Haeckel, . In keeping with all this is the important role played by the sex-relation in the. There is a complicated relationship between Nietzsche and Freud. Many Nietzscheans see large components of Nietzsche's work in Freud.
The idea of becoming a criminal from a sense of guilt was also given a powerful dramatic voice by Eugene O'Neill who read both Nietzsche and Dostoevsky obsessively in his play The Iceman Cometh. Hickey kills his ever-forgiving wife Evelyn because "There is a limit to the guilt you can feel and the forgiveness and the pity you can take!
Paradoxically, provoking one's own punishment might be a way of resolving the guilt. This purification of emotions was pivotal to ancient Greek tragedy, in which a protagonist would facilitate an emotional release among the audience by inducing "pity and terror". Lehrer has traced Freud's origin of the cathartic method to Nietzsche. Now the grave events are supposed to be leading pity and terror inexorably towards relief of discharge.
However, he mentions neither Aristotle nor Nietzsche, and not even Jacob Bernays. Free Association The method of free association became one of Freud's favourite psychoanalytic tools, being one which provided immediate access to the unconscious. It superseded hypnosis and suggestion.
Attributing the inspiration to his patient Elisabeth von R. It is no more possible for an idea to enter consciousness without an occasion than it is for the body to be set in motion without a cause. Now this occasion is either external, and thus an impression on the senses, or internal, and hence itself again an idea which produces another idea by virtue of association.
This association in turn rests either on a relation of ground and consequent between the two, or on similarity, or even on mere analogy, or finally on the simultaneity of their first apprehension; and this again can have its ground in the spatial proximity of their objects. For Nietzsche, the dream world Dionysianby virtue of having its roots in the primordial, was more "true" than logic and reason Apollonian. The origin of this duality goes back to Kant, who claimed that the "phenomenon" was only a construction of the human mind Schopenhauer called it representationwhile the "thing-in-itself" noumenon remains undifferentiated, unknown and unknowable.
Dreams are best viewed as a direct expression of Kantian noumenon, Schopenhauerian will or Nietzsche's Dionysian consciousness. The unconscious nonverbal should thus become conscious verbal. He called it the Nirvana principle and admitted to having borrowed the term from Barbara Low.
Insofar as Schopenhauer never advocated life free from stimulation, but only from desire, his argument was on a different plane. He in fact went beyond duality and proclaimed that suffering was a necessary part of joy: For Nietzsche, eradicating pain meant eradicating both pleasure and joy; hence his prescript - have more pain and more joy! On this point he radically departed from Schopenhauer and regarded his Nirvana-seeking quest as a sign of decadence. He emphasised that "everything living dies for internal reasons - becomes inorganic once again Dying is certainly to be regarded as the real aim of life; at the moment of dying, everything is decided which through the whole course of life was only prepared and introduced.
Why should not a bold thinker have guessed something that is afterwards confirmed by sober and painstaking detailed research?
We are not asserting that death is the only aim of life; we are not overlooking the fact that there is life as well as death. We recognize two basic instincts and give each of them its own aim. How the two of them are mingled in the process of living, how the death instinct is made to serve the purposes of Eros, especially by being turned outwards as aggressiveness - these are the tasks which are left to future investigation.
Young and Brook have stressed that Schopenhauer had never postulated a positive drive to die, and that Freud acknowledged their similarities only at the point where they diverged. In his film of the same title, Visconti ingeniously used Mahler's Adagietto as part of the soundtrack. This mournful, erotic music, reminiscent of Wagner's motif of Liebestod from Tristan and Isolde, was an ultimate transmutation of Schopenhauer's idea into music. We learn what we already know, even if subliminally.
Wagner, who became besotted with Schopenhauer, made "Schopenhauerian" observations before he read his philosophy ibid. So, too, Nietzsche had reached several "Dostoevskyian" insights before he discovered Dostoevsky's writings in Freud's highly ambivalent attitude towards those who might have been seen as progenitors of his ideas led him to produce incompatible statements, perhaps even lies.
And yet, he could not refrain from criticising Nietzsche for having failed "to recognise infantilism as well as the mechanism of displacement" pp. Earlier, he confessed to Fliess: Fliess, February 2, ; in Mason,p. It is difficult to believe that this voracious reader had acquired an expensive collection of Nietzsche's work only to let it sit idly on his bookshelf.
Roazen suggested that Freud had a need to ascertain his right to priority, and Freud's own statement indirectly supports this: The large extent to which psycho-analysis coincides with the philosophy of Schopenhauer - not only did he assert the dominance of the emotions and the supreme importance of sexuality but he was even aware of the mechanism of repression - is not to be traced to my acquaintance with his teaching.
I read Schopenhauer very late in my life. Nietzsche, another philosopher whose guesses and intuitions often agree in the most astonishing way with the laborious findings of psychoanalysis, was for a long time avoided by me on that very account; I was less concerned with the questions of priority than with keeping my mind unembarrassed.
The old, autocratic king demanded priority of passage, and, as the younger man did not yield, he struck him with a staff. Oedipus's subsequent impulsive killing of Laius was the reaction of a proud and hot-headed man, who then readily accepted responsibility for his actions. As a result of his own investigation and self-imposed prosecution, he lost his kingdom, because for him truth was more important than prestige or even life.
Rudnytsky claimed that, in his life, Freud enacted the Oedipus complex pp. However, unlike Oedipus, Freud never attacked his "progenitors" in an open combat, but merely obliterated their existence from his theory. Intolerant of any dissent, he ruthlessly expelled "heretics" from the Psychoanalytic Movement in a Laius-like manner. Jung recalled how Freud, when confronted with a certain uncomfortable truth, had exclaimed to him: Fromm believed that Freud was inwardly torn between his need to be nurtured and his resentment at being dependent.
Freud received adulation and privileges from his parents particularly from his mother who expected him to go far in life. That may have been Freud's predicament. According to Freud's "seduction theory", only when the trauma of early sexual molestation usually by a father was deeply buried in the unconscious could it cause neurotic symptoms.
Freud obtained his patients' confessions only with the use of this "energetic pressure". Yet, as he abandoned the theory, and put it on its head by creating the Oedipus complex, he blamed his patients for lying to him. For a full discussion of this see Cioffi's Was Freud a Liar? Despite an undeniable proclivity for speculation, Freud had a burning ambition to conquer the world as a scientist, in the manner of Darwin as implied by his dream upon entering England in in which he saw himself as William the Conqueror.
Yet, his scientific aptitude was not that of Darwin, and, despite numerous nominations for the Nobel Prize in science, he was never awarded this Stolt, Simultaneously, Freud wished to be remembered by posterity as an unassailable "solver of riddles", a heroic, lone begetter of a new school of thought, and he managed to persuade a considerable number of followers that he was.
However, his philosophising abilities were not in the league of Schopenhauer or Nietzsche, and by acknowledging his debt to them he may have felt obliged to enter into a philosophical debate. From such a confrontation, Freud was unlikely to have emerged victorious. He wrote to Fliess perspicaciously: I am not really a man of science, not an observer, not an experimenter, and not a thinker.
I am nothing but by temperament a conquistador - an adventurer if you want to translate the word - with the curiosity, the boldness, and the tenacity that belongs to that type of being. Such people are apt to be treasured if they succeed, if they have discovered something; otherwise they are thrown aside.
Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche
And that is not altogether unjust. Fliess, February 1, ; in Mason,p. Let us briefly consider cryptomnesia as offering a possible explanation. This is a phenomenon of a long forgotten memory re-emerging into consciousness, yet being perceived as new and original.
A disturbing image of a figure descending into a hellish volcano appears in both texts, with some identical verbal expressions. But the source of that image may be traced even further. While Nietzsche had unconsciously reproduced an image, Freud would have had to unconsciously reproduce a whole array of complex, abstract concepts. While Jung had no opportunity to confirm directly with Nietzsche the source of his volcano image, those who questioned Freud about his philosophical sources met with a vehement denial.
One is tempted to paraphrase Freud's beloved poet and say that the gentleman protested too much. It is impossible to prove "beyond any reasonable doubt" Freud's indebtedness to Schopenhauer and Nietzsche; one can only draw tentative conclusions "on the balance of probabilities".
His contradictory statements as to the origin of his ideas undermine their truthfulness. The charge of lying and plagiarism is probably the most ignominious that a thinker and author can face; it can demean the validity of his entire work. By not paying the debt of gratitude to his conceptual predecessors, Freud has risked a guilty verdict of intellectual dishonesty, as well as having jeopardised the legacy of the valuable and lasting contributions he has made.
Referencing Format Cybulska, E. Freud's burden of debt to Nietzsche and Schopenhauer. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, 15 215 pp. State University of New York Press.
Was Freud a liar? In Freud and the question of pseudoscience pp. Chicago and la Salle, IL: Follies of the wise: A thinker at the crossroads.
Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, 13 1 Crime and punishment D. The discovery of the unconscious: The history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry. The interpretation of dreams. Three essays on the theory of sexuality. Original work published ; Preface to 4th ed. The origins of psychoanalysis. Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, drafts and notes: Beyond the pleasure principle. On the history of the psycho-analytic movement. Instincts and their vicissitudes.
A note on the unconscious in psychoanalysis. The ego and the id. Civilization and its discontents.
- Services on Demand
- Your Answer
- The woman who charmed Nietzsche, Freud and Rilke…
New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis. An analysis of his personality and influence. The case of Nietzsche's genealogy. Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences, 38 3 The life and work of Sigmund Freud.
The years of maturity The last phase Jung, Bollingen Series XX 1st ed. Memories, dreams, reflections A. Freud and Nietzsche, The philosophy of Schopenhauer. The complete letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess The will to power W. Thus spoke Zarathustra R. The gay science W. Thoughts on the prejudices of morality R. Beyond good and evil R.
The birth of tragedy out of the spirit of music S. Human, all too human M. Original work, now referred to as Pt. On the genealogy of morality: Original work written Nunberg, H. Minutes of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society Vol. An essay on interpretation D. Overview[ edit ] Beginning while Nietzsche was still alive, though incapacitated by mental illnessmany Germans discovered his appeals for greater heroic individualism and personality development in Thus Spoke Zarathustrabut responded to those appeals in diverging ways.
He had some following among left-wing Germans in the Nietzsche's anarchistic influence was particularly strong in France and the United States. In the context of the rise of French fascism, one researcher notes, "Although, as much recent work has stressed, Nietzsche had an important impact on "leftist" French ideology and theory, this should not obscure the fact that his work was also crucial to the right and to the neither right nor left fusions of developing French fascism.
Many political leaders of the 20th century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas. However, it is not always possible to determine whether or not they actually read his work. Regarding Hitler, for example, there is a debate. Some authors claim that he probably never read Nietzsche, or that if he did, his reading was not extensive.
A girlfriend of Mussolini, Margherita Sarfatti who was Jewish, relates that Nietzsche virtually was the transforming factor in Mussolini's "conversion" from hard socialism to spiritualistic, ascetic fascism, : Nietzsche and anarchism[ edit ] Main article: Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche During the 19th century, Nietzsche was frequently associated with anarchist movements, in spite of the fact that in his writings he definitely holds a negative view of egalitarian anarchists.
According to a recent study, " Gustav LandauerEmma Goldman and others reflected on the chances offered and the dangers posed by these ideas in relation to their own politics. This calls into question the innovative potential of post-anarchism. Nietzsche's aristocratic elitism is the death-knell of any Nietzschean conventional anarchism.
Also more recently in post-left anarchyNietzsche is present in the thought of Hakim Bey and Wolfi Landstreicher. Nietzsche and fascism[ edit ] See also: Also inElisabeth gave to Hitler Nietzsche's favorite walking stick, and Hitler was photographed gazing into the eyes of a white marble bust of Nietzsche.
The influence of Nietzsche on Freud's ideas.
Wistrich has pointed out The "fascist" Nietzsche was above all considered to be a heroic opponent of necrotic Enlightenment "rationality" and a kind of spiritual vitalist, who had glorified war and violence in an age of herd-lemming shopkeepers, inspiring the anti-Marxist revolutions of the interwar period.
According to the French fascist Pierre Drieu la Rochelleit was the Nietzschean emphasis on the autotelic power of the Will that inspired the mystic voluntarism and political activism of his comrades.
Such politicized readings were vehemently rejected by another French writer, the socialo-communist anarchist Georges Bataille, who in the s sought to establish in ambiguous success the "radical incompatibility" between Nietzsche as a thinker who abhorred mass politics and "the fascist reactionaries. The German philosopher Martin Heideggerwho was with great harm to his subsequent reputation an active member of the Nazi Party, himself noted that everyone in his day was either 'for' or 'against' Nietzsche while claiming that this thinker heard a "command to reflect on the essence of a planetary domination.
Schrift cites this passage and writes, "That Heidegger sees Nietzsche heeding a command to reflect and prepare for earthly domination is of less interest to me than his noting that everyone thinks in terms of a position for or against Nietzsche. In particular, the gesture of setting up 'Nietzsche' as a battlefield on which to take one's stand against or to enter into competition with the ideas of one's intellectual predecessors or rivals has happened quite frequently in the twentieth century.
In The Will to Power Nietzsche praised — sometimes metaphorically, other times both metaphorically and literally — the sublimity of war and warriors, and heralded an international ruling race that would become the "lords of the earth". Here Nietzsche was referring to pan-Europeanism of a Caesarist type, positively embracing Jews,[ according to whom?
The Nazis appropriated, or rather received also inspiration in this case, from Nietzsche's extremely old-fashioned and semi-feudal views on women: Nietzsche despised modern feminism, along with democracy and socialism, as mere egalitarian leveling movements of nihilism. He forthrightly declared, "Man shall be trained for war and woman for the procreation of the warrior, anything else is folly"; and was indeed unified with the Nazi world-view at least in terms of the social role of women: The era of Nazi rule — saw Nietzsche's writings widely studied in German and, afterAustrian schools and universities.
Despite the fact that Nietzsche had expressed his disgust with plebeian-volkist anti-Semitism and supremacist German nationalism in the most forthright terms possible e. For example, one "rabidly Nazi writer, Curt von Westernhagen, who announced in his book Nietzsche, Juden, Antijuden that the time had come to expose the 'defective personality of Nietzsche whose inordinate tributes for, and espousal of, Jews had caused him to depart from the Germanic principles enunciated by Meister Richard Wagner'.
Once an affinity like this is appreciated, the absurdity of describing Nietzsche's political thought as 'fascist', or Nazi, becomes readily apparent. Nietzsche was enlisted as an authority for articulating the movement's ruptured relationship with the past and a force in its drive to normalization and its activist ideal of self-creating Hebraic New Man.
Nicosia notes, "At the height of his fame between andsome of Nietzsche's ideas seemed to have a particular resonance for some Zionists, including Theodore Herzl. Martin Buber was fascinated by Nietzsche, whom he praised as a heroic figure, and he strove to introduce "a Nietzschean perspective into Zionist affairs. Max Nordauan early Zionist orator and controversial racial anthropologist, insisted that Nietzsche had been insane since birth, and advocated "branding his disciples [ Thor is asked to receive the reader, and Wotan to own them.
This, in a nutshell, is how Jung came to see Nietzsche, and explains why he was so fascinated by Nietzsche as a thinker. According to Ernest Jonesbiographer and personal acquaintance of Sigmund FreudFreud frequently referred to Nietzsche as having "more penetrating knowledge of himself than any man who ever lived or was likely to live". In his excoriating — but also sympathetic — critique of psychoanalysis, The Psychoanalytic Movement, Ernest Gellner depicts Nietzsche as setting out the conditions for elaborating a realistic psychology, in contrast with the eccentrically implausible Enlightenment psychology of Hume and Smith, and assesses the success of Freud and the psychoanalytic movement as in large part based upon its success in meeting this "Nietzschean minimum".
Howardand Jack London. Mencken avidly read and translated Nietzsche's works and has gained the sobriquet "the American Nietzsche". In his book on Nietzsche, Mencken portrayed the philosopher as a proponent of anti-egalitarian aristocratic revolution, a depiction in sharp contrast with left-wing interpretations of Nietzsche. The popular conservative writer, philosopher, poet, journalist and theological apologist of Catholicism G.
Chesterton expressed contempt for Nietzsche's ideas, deeming his philosophy basically a poison or death-wish of Western culture: I do not even think that a cosmopolitan contempt for patriotism is merely a matter of opinion, any more than I think that a Nietzscheite contempt for compassion is merely a matter of opinion.