When it comes to folate and vitamin B, maintaining the proper ratio of these You're probably more familiar with its synthetic form, folic acid, which is used to. Supplement makers market vitamin B12 as an energy and endurance Studies have shown a combination of vitamin B12, folic acid and vitamin B6 vitamin B12 and a reduced cancer risk, but the connection is still unclear. An imbalance between dietary vitamin B12 and folic acid women a “U-shaped” relation between total folate intake and natural killer cells (NK) cytotoxicity. .. folic acid fortification of breakfast cereals in the Spanish market.
What is the health risk of too much folic acid? The risk of toxicity from folic acid is low The Institute of Medicine has established a tolerable upper intake level UL for folate of 1, mcg for adult men and women, and a UL of mcg for pregnant and lactating breast-feeding women less than 18 years of age Supplemental folic acid should not exceed the UL to prevent folic acid from masking symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency 10, Selected food sources of folate and folic acid As the Dietary Guidelines for Americans states, "Different foods contain different nutrients and other healthful substances.
No single food can supply all the nutrients in the amounts you need" The following table suggests dietary sources of folate.
Vitamin B12: Deficiency & Supplements
As the table indicates, green leafy vegetables, dry beans and peas, and many other types of vegetables and fruits are good sources of folate. In addition, fortified foods are a major source of folic acid. It is not unusual to find foods such as cereals fortified with percent of the RDA for folate. The large numbers of fortified foods on the market, however, also raise concern that intake may exceed the UL. This is especially important for anyone at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency, which can be masked by too much folic acid.
It is important for anyone who is considering taking a folic acid supplement to first consider whether their needs are being met by adequate sources of dietary folate and folic acid from fortified foods. If you want more information about building a healthful diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid.
Nutrition in Health and Disease. Folate and antifolate pharmacology. Semin Oncol ; Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism. Rev Prat ; Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Lab Home Page, http: More folic acid for everyone, now. J Nutr ; Reduction of plasma homocyst e ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease.
N Engl J Med ; Minimum effective dose of folic acid for food fortification to prevent neural-tube defects. American College of Medical Genetics statement on folic acid: Am J Med Genet ; Food and Nutrition Board. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic Acid, biotin, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc ; Data updated to reflect food fortification, increased bioavailability, and dietary supplement use.
Am J Clin Nutr ; Folate requirements for health in different population groups. Br J Biomed Sci ; Possible folate deficiency with postsurgical infection. Nutr Clin Pract ;9: Hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic alcoholism: Correlation with folate, vitamin B, and vitamin B-6 status. Pietrzik KF and Thorand B.
Folate economy in pregnancy. Supplemental forms and therapeutic applications. Altern Med Rev ; 3: Haslam N and Probert CS. An audit of the investigation and tre atment of folic acid deficiency. J R Soc Med ; Periconceptional vitamin use, dietary folate, and the occurrence of neural tube defects. Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects.
J Am Med Assoc ; Nutritional deficiencies in chronic alcoholics: Relation to dietary intake and alcohol consumption. Am J Gastroenterol ; Red blood cell uptake of supplemental folate in patients on anticonvulsant drug therapy. Folic acid and psychopathology. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiat ; Truncal ataxia in chronic anticonvulsant treatment.
Association with drug-induced folate deficiency. J Neurol Sci ; Animals were maintained on a After receiving the assigned diet for eight weeks, they were divided in four different groups on the basis of the experimental diet used, that were adjusted to rat requirements and based on a pure amino-acid diet Dyets, Bethlehem, PA, USA [ 20 ] modifying the FA and B12 content as follows: Rats were fed ad libitum their respective diets for 30 days.
Sacrifice and Tissue Handling Animals were sacrificed by decapitation; liver, spleen, thymus and axillary nodes were quickly removed. Hepatic Folate Folate content in the rat liver was assessed by a microbiological method above described for serum folate determination. Previously, the livers were prepared through extraction and enzyme treatments carried according to the described trienzyme extraction method [ 23 ]. The serum was pretreated and diluted in a buffer and then the samples were transferred into a 96 well-plate and then coated with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC The growth of Lactobacillus turbidimetrically is determined at — nm.
The vitamin B12 concentration is directly proportional to the turbidity. Isolation of Rat Blood Neutrophils and Lymphocytes Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained following a previously described method [ 24 ], by gradient sedimentation using a 1. Cells from both interfaces were washed twice in phosphate-buffered saline solution.
Vitamin B Deficiency & Supplements
The following lymphocyte subsets were evaluated by flow cytometry: The control samples were incubated with purified phycoerythrin-labeled mouse immunoglobulin G1, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled mouse immunoglobulin G2 and allophycocyanin-labeled mouse immunoglobulin M.
Lymphoproliferation A previously described method was used [ 242627 ]. An enzymatic colorimetric assay was used for cytolysis measurements of target cells Cytotox 96 TM Promega, Madison, WI, USA based on determination of lactate deshydrogenase using tetrazolim salts.
It is not likely that vitamin B12 is an effective treatment for sleep disorders in seniors — at least when it's used in combination with vitamin B6 and folic acid, according to the National Library of Medicine. Low vitamin B12 levels are commonly found with other physical signs of mental decline, such as high homocysteine levels or low folate levels.
And people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and dementia often have low vitamin B12 levels. However, studies have not conclusively shown that vitamin B12 supplements will improve memory or thinking skills in the elderly, in Alzheimer's patients, in dementia patients or among stroke survivors. The NIH's Office of Dietary Supplements says that more large clinical trials are needed to prove whether vitamin B12 can influence cognitive function and the risk of developing dementia.
Folic Acid Molecule -- B Complex Vitamin
A study published in in the journal Neurology, which included nearly 3, older adults, found that taking a combination of vitamin B12 and folic acid another type of B vitamin didn't improve people's performances on thinking and memory tests. More studies are needed to determine whether vitamin B12 supplements can improve depression symptoms. Researchers in Finland took blood samples from patients diagnosed with major depression disorder. The patients underwent six months of treatment, including therapy and medication, before giving another blood sample.
Those with higher levels of vitamin B12 at the start and end of the study were more likely to "fully" respond to treatment, according to the study, published in December in the online journal BMC Psychiatry.
Researchers considered 40 people in the study to have a "full response" to depression treatment, 34 had a partial response and 41 people had no response. Yet other preliminary studies have failed to show that vitamin B12 supplements alone can help depression. A two-year study of elderly people examined whether groups assigned to exercise, mental health education or vitamin supplements had fewer depression systems.How to Naturally Overcome Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Four follow-up surveys over the span of two years found that only mental-health education changed depression symptoms, according to the July paper in the British Journal of Psychiatry. Vitamin B12 will not enhance athletic performance or increase energy levels in people who are not deficient in vitamin B12, according to the NIH's Office of Dietary Supplements.
There is not yet enough scientific evidence to determine if vitamin B12 supplements have an effect on allergies, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and other immune system problems. However, vitamin B12 is possibly effective at preventing age-related macular degeneration, a common eye condition that leads to vision loss.
Limited research supports that vitamin B12 supplements are effective at treating shaky leg syndrome, eczema and canker sores.
However more studies are needed to prove the connection, according to the National Library of Medicine. How do B12 levels change as people age? In a studyresearchers measured the levels of vitamin B12 in the brains of more than 60 deceased individuals, ranging in age from a fetus in a late stage of gestation to 80 years. The researchers found that levels of vitamin B12 in the brain were 10 times lower in the oldest people compared with the youngest, reflecting a gradual, natural and consistent decline over time.
But in people with certain medical conditions, the researchers detected levels of the vitamin that didn't fit into this pattern. For example, the brains of young people with autism and the brains of middle-age people with schizophrenia had about one-third the levels of vitamin B12 compared with similarly aged people who did not have these conditions.
The study, however, found only an association between vitamin B12 levels and these neurological conditions; it did not find that low levels of the vitamin lead to the conditions.
Are vitamin B12 supplements safe? Vitamin B12 has a low risk of overdose in the body. Supplement makers put a lot of B vitamins into capsules — sometimes as much as percent of the recommended daily intake. For this reason, the Institute of Medicine does not set a limit on how much vitamin B12 a person can safely take in a day. Vitamin B12 also appears to be safe when applied to the skin to treat psoriasis, according to the National Library of Medicine. Vitamin B12 may increase the risk that an artery narrows around a stent, a device that widens a blocked artery.
And vitamin B12 supplements can potentially harm the optic nerve and cause blindness in people with the rare hereditary condition called Leber's disease. Proton-pump inhibitors slow the release of gastric acid, which is needed to start digesting and absorbing vitamin B12 found in food. But studies have yet to conclude if proton-pump inhibitors interfere enough with digestion to result in low vitamin B12 levels. H2 blockers can interfere with vitamin B12 absorption because they slow the release of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
H2 inhibitors could cause problems in people who do not get enough vitamin B12 and who take the medication for more than two years, according to the NIH's Office of Dietary Supplements. Other drugs that affect stomach acid have been linked to poor vitamin B12 absorption, including the cholesterol drug cholestyramine; the antibiotics chloramphenicol and neomycin; and the gout treatment colchicine.